Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
 Open access journal indexed with Index Medicus & ISI's SCI  
Users online: 1115  
Home | Subscribe | Feedback | Login 
About Latest Articles Back-Issues Article Submission Resources Sections Etcetera Contact
 :: Next article
 :: Previous article 
 :: Table of Contents
 ::  Similar in PUBMED
 ::  Search Pubmed for
 ::  Search in Google Scholar for
 ::  [PDF Not available] *
 ::  Citation Manager
 ::  Access Statistics
 ::  Reader Comments
 ::  Email Alert *
 ::  Add to My List *
* Registration required (free) 

  IN THIS Article
 ::  Abstract
 ::  Introduction
 ::  Material and Methods
 ::  Material and Methods
 ::  Results
 ::  Discussion
 ::  References
 ::  Article Figures
 ::  Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded0    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal


Year : 1976  |  Volume : 22  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 76-82

A comparative study of central nervous system depressant effects of some of the disubstituted piperazine compounds-part I

Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacology Research Unit C.S.I.R., Seth G. S. Medical College, Parel, Bombay 400 012, India

Correspondence Address:
N K Dadkar
Hoechst Research Centre, Mulund, Bombay 400080.
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

PMID: 1032679

Rights and PermissionsRights and Permissions

 :: Abstract 

Comparison of central nervous system depressant activity of R-1230, R-1945 and R-1946 (disubstituted piperazine derivatives) employing various pharmacological tests revealed that R-1230 (Orthomethoxyphenyl derivative) and R-1946 (Parafluorophenyl derivative) were more potent than R-1945 (Orthof luorophenyl derivative) as CNS depressants and the CNS depression produced by these agents could be classified pharmacologically in same group as major tranquillizers like chlorpromazine. It also signified, that presence of methoxy or fluoro group within the drug molecule does not necessarily determine the activity but the position o f these groups in drug molecule is mainly responsible for determining de­gree of CNS depressant activity exerted by the compound.

How to cite this article:
Dadkar N K, Dadkar VN, Sheth U K. A comparative study of central nervous system depressant effects of some of the disubstituted piperazine compounds-part I. J Postgrad Med 1976;22:76-82

How to cite this URL:
Dadkar N K, Dadkar VN, Sheth U K. A comparative study of central nervous system depressant effects of some of the disubstituted piperazine compounds-part I. J Postgrad Med [serial online] 1976 [cited 2019 May 20];22:76-82. Available from:

 :: Introduction Top

After the preliminary pharmacological evaluation of various members of disub­stituted piperazine derivative (Struc­ture activity relationship has been des­cribed by Dadkar et al [4] ) , three com­pounds were selected for more de­tailed study-Compound R-1230 pos­ sessing pronounced adrenolytic, hypoten­sive and CNS depressant activity, R-1945 possessing pronounced hypotensive and adrenolytic activity but poor CNS de­pressant activity and R-1946 possessing pronounced CNS depressant activity with hypotensive effects but poor adrenolytic activity.[Figure 1].

The present study was undertaken to correlate and compare central nervous system effects of these three compounds with their molecular structure.

 :: Material and Methods Top

For study of CNS depressant action of these compounds male albino mice weighing 20-25 gm were selected. Hydro­chlorides of R:.1230, R-1945 and R-1946 were employed and vehicle was distilled water. When concentration of solution employed was more than 20 mg/ml, 1%gum acacia was used as vehicle.

Acute toxicity studies in mice

50 determination)

Acute toxicity of test compounds in mice (20-25 gm) was determined by the i.p. route of administration. Six doses ranging from 10-800 mg/kg were admin­istered to group of 6 mice; 1 % gum acacia was used as a vehicle. The group treated with vehicle alone served as con­trol. Approximate LD 50 was determined by recording the percentage mortality re­gistered during a 72 hr. observation period at each dose level by using Litch­field-Wilcoxon's probit method. [7]

Motor activity in mice

Motor activity in mice was evaluated quantitatively by the photocell method of Dews [5] using Actophotometer (Metro Industry). Six mice were used in each group and 10 minutes counts were registered at ˝, 1, 1˝, 2, 3 and 4 hrs. after the treatment with test compounds (R-1230:5 mg/kg i.p., R-1945:10 mg/kg i.p. and R-1946:5 mg/kg i.p.). Mice treated with saline served as control. CPZ was used as the reference com­pound.

Dose response studies were done at the time of peak drug action. Log dose response curves were plotted and the ED 50 value was determined from the cal­culated regression line.

The effect on forced co-ordinated motor activity was studied on rotardo. [6] Percent­age of mice falling off the rotarod (12 re­volutions per min) at the peak drug effect was computed and ED 50 values were de­termined.

Effect on d-amphetamine induced hyperactivity

The effects of various doses of test compounds (R-1230:5.0 and 10.0 mg/kg i.p., R-1945:10.0, 15.0 and 20.0 mg/kg i.p. and R-1946:5.0, 10.0 and 15.0 mg/kg i.p.) given 1 hr. prior to amphetamine (4.5 mg/kg i.p.) were studied by using the Actophotometer. Group treated with saline served as control. Activity of each group (6 mice/group) was recorded for 10 minutes, at intervals of half an hour after the administration of amphetamine.

Effect on toxicity of d-amphetamine or aggregated mice

The effect of 1 hr. prior treatment of different doses of R-1230: 1, 2, 5 and 10 mg/kg, R-1945:4, 6, 8 and 10 mg,/kg and R-1946:1, 2.5, 5 and 10mg/kg on amphe­tamine (14.5 mg/kg i.p. 100;; mortality in control) toxicity in aggregated mice was determined by the method described by Burn and Hobbs. [2] Deaths were re­corded after 24 hours and ED 50 was cal­culated by a method of Litchfield and Wilcoxon. [7]

Effect on conditioned avoidance response (CAR)

The effect on CAR was studied in male albino rats (130-160 gm) employing the method of Cook and Weidley. [3] The ED50 value for each test compound was determined using the Litchfield­Wilcoxon's probit method. [7] CPZ was used as the reference compound.

 :: Results Top

LD 50 determination in mice Approximate LD 50 of R-1230 was 250 mg/kg i.p., it was 500 mg/kg i.p. for compound R-1945 and 400 mg/kg i.p. for R-1946.

Actophotometer studies

All the three compounds depressed locomotor activity in mice and action was seen within half an hour.. Peak in­hibitory effect was seen at 1 hr. for all compounds (R-1230 at dose of 5 mg/kg i.p., R-1245 at 10 mg/kg i.p. and R-1946 at 5 mg/kg i.p.) and action largely disap­peared by 4 hours.

The ED 50 was found to be 2.2 mg/kg for R-1230, 6.0 mg/kg for R-1945, 1.95 mg/kg for R-1946 and 1 mg/kg for chlorpromazine, as determined from the regression line [Figure 2].

Rotarod test

All the three compounds, at the various doses studied, reduced the induced activity in mice. With R-1230 peak drug effect was observed at 1 hr. and it lasted for 3-4 hrs. With R-1945, peak effect was evident at 2 hrs. and dis­appeared by 3 hrs. except for higher doses when effect lasted for more than 4 hrs. and with R-1946, effects were simi­lar to those of R-1230.

The ED 50 of R-1230 was found to be 12.0 (9.5-15.0) mg/kg i.p., it was 25.0 (16.7-37.7) mg/kg i.p. for R-1945 and 28.0 (22.1-38.0) mg/kg i.p. for R-1946 (95% confidence limits). Evaluation of the results by the method of Kinnard and Carr [6] revealed that the acti­vity ratio lines for R-1230 and R-1946 ran parallel to each other fairly closely. Actophotometer studies demonstrated a greater degree of depression at compar­able points on the two lines as compared to the rotarod method [Figure 3],[Figure 4].

All the three compounds showed a marked inhibition of amphetamine in­duced hyperactivity. Inhibition was evident with R-1230 at a dose of 5 mg/kg i.p. and almost complete inhibition was seen at a dose of 10 mg/kg i.p. Com­parable doses of R-1945 and R-1946 were 10.0 and 20.0 mg/kg and 10.0 and 15.0 mg/kg respectively.

Effect on toxicity of d-amphetamine on aggregated mice [Table 2]

All the compounds studied greatly at­tenuated the increased toxicity of am­phetamine for grouped mice. The ED 50 for R-1230 was 2.6 (1.53-4.42) mg/kg, 6.0 (4.28-7.2) mg/kg for R-1945 and 1.7 (1.0-2.89) mg/kg for R-1946. Complete protection (100%) was achieved at 10 mg/kg i.p. dose for all compounds.

R-1230 in a dose of 8.0 mg/kg and R­1946 in a dose of 10.0 mg/kg inhibited avoidance response (80% inhibition) without any effect on the ability of the rats to escape. The action commenced at 30 minutes after injection and continued for 3 to 4 hours. A com­parable degree of inhibition was achieved with R-1945 in a dose of 25.0 mg/kg, its action commenced at 30 min and continu­ed for 2 to 3 hours. No ataxia was evi­dent at these dose levels of test com­pounds.

The ED 50 values of R-1230, R-1945 and R-1946 were 2.83 (1.55-5.2) mg/kg, 18.0 (15-22) mg/kg and 5.7 (4.2-6.7) mg/kg respectively (95% confidence limits). ED 50 of chlorpromazine was 4.7 (3.98-6.45) mg/kg (95% confidence limits) [Figure 5].

 :: Discussion Top

Structurally compounds R-1230, R-1945 and R-1946 resemble reserpine and phenothiazines which are the agents used in psychiatric disorders. Like reserpine, these compounds possess trimethoxy group and like phenothiazines, they have a piperazine group in their chemical structure. Since trimethoxy group is associated with CNS depressant activity [9] , the test compounds were assessed for CNS depressant activity using chlorpro­mazine as a reference compound.

Effect of compounds on orientation hyperactivity, a form of the so called un­learned reactivity [1] measured by ac­tophotometer studies. This orientation hyperactivity is more affected by rauwolfia alkaloids and phenothia­zines than by minor tranquillizers like meprobamate. [1] It was evident that compounds R-1230 and R-1946 caused in­hibition of motor activity almost compar­able to that of chlorpromazine, their ED 50 values being almost of the same magni­tude as that of chlorpromazine. R-1945 required much larger doses to produce similar inhibition.

Inhibition of motor activity as assessed by rotarod studies is affected to a greater extent by hypnotic-sedatives (like barbi­turates) and minor tranquillizers (like mephrobamate) as compared to the major tranquillizers like chlorpromazine. [6] In this study, it was revealed that doses of R­1230, R-1945 and R-1946 required to pro­duce 50% diminution of the animal's per­formance on a rotarod were much greater than those required for inhibition of ori­entation activity revealed by actophoto­meter studies. Less doses were required for R-1230 and R-1946 as compared to R-1945.

It has also been shown that major tranquillizers are specific depressants of CAR while minor tranquillizers and hypnotics suppress this response only in lar­ger atonic doses. [3] ED 50 values of R-1230 and R-1946 in suppressing the CAR were more or less similar to that of chlorpro­mazine, while R-1945 had an ED 50 value several fold greater than these compounds. So compounds R-1230 and R­1N6 appeared more potent than R-1945 as CNS depressant and the character of CNS depression induced by these com­pounds could be classified pharmacologi­cally in same group as the major tran­quillizers.

These compounds in the doses tested could inhibit amphetamine induced hy­peractivity, R-1230, R-1946 being more potent inhibitors than R-1945.

A significant degree of protection was provided by R-1230 and R-1946 against aggregation toxicity in amphetamine treated mice. This protective effect and reduction in mortality is observed selec­tively with major tranquillizers and not with minor tranquillizers. [2] Compound R-1945 required larger doses to exert an equivalent action to the other two com­pounds. As far as protection against am­phetamine induced aggregation toxicity is concerned, Moore [8] has reported that chlorpromazine and phenoxybenzamine could afford protection; with former, no significant alteration with brain catechola­mines was seen while with latter, no al­teration in central excitatory effect of am­phetamine was observed. Thus it appears that both central and peripheral mechan­isms may be involved in causation of am­phetamine toxicity and the test com­pounds we have studied exert central ac­tivity like chlorpromazine and possibly some peripheral activity like phenoxyben­zamine.

Since it was shown that R-1230 (Ortho­methoxyphenyl derivative) and R-1946 (Parafluorophenyl derivative) were more potent CNS depressants than R-1945 (Orthofluorophenyl derivative) it signi­fies that presence of methoxy or fluoro group within the drug molecule does not determine the activity but the position of these groups in drug molecule is re­sponsible for determining the degree of CNS depressant activity exerted by the compound.[Table 1]

 :: References Top

1.Borsy, J., Csanyi, E. and Lazar, I.: A method of assaying tranquillizing drugs based on the inhibition of orientational hypermotility. Arch. int. Pharmacodyn., 124: 180-190, 1960.  Back to cited text no. 1    
2.Burn, J. H. and Hobbs, R.: A test for tranquillizing drugs. Arch. int. Pharma­codyn., 113: 290-295, 1958.  Back to cited text no. 2    
3.Cook, L. and Weidley, E.: Effect of some psychopharmacological agents. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 66: 742-752, 1957.  Back to cited text no. 3    
4.Dadkar, N. K., Dadkar, Vaishali N., Deliwala, C. V. and Sheth, U. K.: Struc­ture activity relationship of disubstituted piperazine compounds. J. Postgrad. Med., 22: 66-75, 1976.  Back to cited text no. 4    
5.Dews, P. P.: The measurement of the influence of drugs on voluntary activity in mice. Brit. J. Pharmacol., 8: 46-48,1953.  Back to cited text no. 5    
6.Kinnard, W. J., Jr. and Carr, J.: A preliminary procedure for evaluation of central nervous system depressants. J. Pharmacol. expt. Ther., 121: 354-361,1957.  Back to cited text no. 6    
7.Litchfield, J. T., Jr. and Wilcoxon, F.: A simplified method of evaluating dose effect experiments. J. Pharmacol. exp. Ther., 96: 99-113, 1949.  Back to cited text no. 7    
8.Moore, K. E.: The role of endogenous norepinephrine in the toxicity of d-am­phetamine in aggregated mice. J. Phar­macol. exp. Ther., 144: 45-51, 1964.  Back to cited text no. 8    
9.Schlager, L. H.: Derivatives of vicinal trimethoxy benzene. Arzneimittal­Forsch., 13: 226-234, 1963.  Back to cited text no. 9    


  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5]

  [Table 1], [Table 2]


Print this article  Email this article
Previous article Next article
Online since 12th February '04
© 2004 - Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Official Publication of the Staff Society of the Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, India
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow