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  IN THIS Article
 ::  Abstract
 ::  Introduction
 ::  Material and method
 ::  Results
 ::  Discussion
 ::  References

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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 1991  |  Volume : 37  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 132-5

Beneficial effects of Allium sativum, Allium cepa and Commiphora mukul on experimental hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis--a comparative evaluation.


Department of Pharmacology, L. L. R. M. Medical College, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh.

Correspondence Address:
Department of Pharmacology, L. L. R. M. Medical College, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh.


  ::  Abstract

Oral administration of petroleum ether extract of Allium sativum, Allium cepa and ethylacetate extract of Commiphora mukul in albino rats significantly prevented rise in serum cholesterol and serum triglyceride level, caused by atherogenic diet. All the three agents were also found to confer significant protection against atherogenic diet induced atherosclerosis.

How to cite this article:
Lata S, Saxena K K, Bhasin V, Saxena R S, Kumar A, Srivastava V K. Beneficial effects of Allium sativum, Allium cepa and Commiphora mukul on experimental hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis--a comparative evaluation. J Postgrad Med 1991;37:132


How to cite this URL:
Lata S, Saxena K K, Bhasin V, Saxena R S, Kumar A, Srivastava V K. Beneficial effects of Allium sativum, Allium cepa and Commiphora mukul on experimental hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis--a comparative evaluation. J Postgrad Med [serial online] 1991 [cited 2019 Nov 14];37:132. Available from: http://www.jpgmonline.com/text.asp?1991/37/3/132/776




  ::   Introduction Top

Allium sativitni (garlic), Allium cepa (onion) and Conintiphora mukul (guggulu) have been suggested to possess hypocholesterolemic property in clinical[3],[9],[10], as well as experimental[5],[12] studies. A sativum has been reported to exhibit beneficial effect in atherosclerosis and ischemic heart disease in experimental animals and human beings. [2],[7] Since most of these plants form the constituent of customary diet in Indian food, their chronic ingestion is safe and is expected to be devoid of any major toxic effect. These plants therefore, may be expected to be of benefit largely in persons prone to hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis.
Till now no study has been carried out to compare the beneficial effects of these three agents against hyperlipidemia. Hence, the present study was undertaken to discover the relative potency of these agents with respect to their antihyperlipidemic effect and prophylactic potential against atherosclerosis.

  ::   Material and method Top

The study was conducted in albino rats of porter strain and either sex weighing 300 + 15 gm. These were randomly divided into five groups of 10 animals each. Animals of Group. I to IV was fed with atherogenic diet for five consecutive days, which contained (Kg-1, day-1) 1.5 ml of an olive oil solution, containing per nil Vit. D3 3,20000 1. U. and cholesterol 40 mg1. While Group I received only atherogenic diet, Group II, III and IV received in addition petroleum ether extract of A. Sativum equivalent to 1 g/kg of dry garlic, A. cepa equivalent to 2 g/kg of dry onion and ethylacetate extract of C. mukul 200 mg/kg respectively. Each animal of Group V was administered orally equivalent volume of normal saline in place of atherogenic diet. All the animals received commercial pellet diet and water ad lib for the period of study.
On the sixth day the animals were anaesthetised with pentobarbitone (35 mg/kg. i.p.) and blood samples were collected from abdominal aorta for the estimation of serum cholesterol[14] and triglyceride[8]. Aortae were then excised and studied for atherosclerotic lesions, which were graded as per the method described by Duff and McMillan[6]. The method for grading was open. The results were analysed by Student's 't' and Fisher's exact probability tests.

  ::   Results Top

Effect on serum cholesterol and triglycerides:
[Table - 1] illustrates the effect of atherogenic diet and treatment with either of the agents on serum cholesterol and triglycerides.
Serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly increased by atherogenic diet as compared to normal values. All the 3 agents prevented this rise when administered concomitantly with diet.
Effect on Atherosclerotic Lesions:
The distribution of grades of atherosclerotic lesions following atherogenic diet in saline and drug treated animals is shown in [Table - 2]. Since these grades do not conform to a normal distribution curve, a non-parametric test (Fisher's exact probability test) was applied to analyse the results. [13] For this, each set of results was arbitrarily arranged into two groups, group A containing 0 to II grades and group B containing III and IV grades. The results of both the groups were compared and the probability of difference was calculated. A. sativum was found to prevent the development of atherosclerotic lesions induced by atherogenic diet (p < 0.005). A. cepa and C mukul too, exhibited significant protective effect (p < 0.05).

  ::   Discussion Top

Atherogenicity with subsequent cardiovascular manifestations is one of the important causes of high mortality and morbidity. Various agents which affect hyperlipidemia are still not used for prevention of atherosclerosis because of their potential toxicity and intolerance. A. sativum, A. cepa are known to lower the serum lipid levels[4] and are well tolerated as they form the constituents of customary Indian diet. C. mukul has been widely used in Aurvedic system of medicine for the treatment of obesity.[11] In the present study too, these three agents were found to prevent significantly the rise in serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels induced by atherogenic diet [Table - 1]. The most potent amongst these was found to be A. sativian while C. mukul exhibited least effect. A. cepa exhibited moderate activity [Table - 1]. However, prevention of rise in scrum cholesterol level by A. cepa and C mukul was not statistically significant when compared with each other. All these agents were also found to confer protection against atherogenic diet induced atherosclerosis. The order of potency again was A. sativum > A. cepa > C. mukul, as is reflected by the level of significance [Table - 2]. Bordia and Bansal[4] have compared A. sativum and A. cepa in experimental atherosclerosis. We too have found similar results. A. sativum is the most potent amongst the three agents in the doses employed, for prophylaxis of hyperlipidemia and atheroselerosis.

  ::   References Top

1. Altman RFA. Simple method for the rapid production of atherosclerosis in rats. Experentia 1973; 29:256-257.  Back to cited text no. 1    
2.Arora RC, Arora S, Gupta RK. The long-term use of garlic in ischemic heart disease - an appraisal. Atherosclerosis 1981; 40:175-179.  Back to cited text no. 2    
3.Augusti KT. Hypocholesterolaemic effect of garlic Allium sativum lin. Ind J Exp Biol 1977; 15:489-490.  Back to cited text no. 3    
4.Bordia A, Bansal, HC. Essential oil of garlic in prevention of atheroscierosis. (Letter to the editor) Lancet 1973; 2:1491-1492.  Back to cited text no. 4    
5.Bordia A, Verma SK, Khabia BL, Vyas A, Rathore AS, Bhu N, Bedi HK. The effect of active principle of garlic and onion on blood lipids and experimental atherosclerosis in rabbits and their comparison with clofibrate. J Assoc Phys Ind 1977; 25:509-516.  Back to cited text no. 5    
6.Duff GL, McMillan GC. The effect of alloxan diabetes on experimental cholesterol atherosclerosis in the rabbit. I. The inhibition of experimental cholesterol atherosclerosis in alloxan diabetes. II. The effect of alloxan diabetes on the retrogression of experimental cholesterol atheroselerosis. J Exp Med 1949; 89:611-630.  Back to cited text no. 6    
7.Jain RC. Onion and garlic in experimental cholesterol induced atherosclerosis. Ind J Med Res 1976; 64:1509-1515.  Back to cited text no. 7    
8.Lausell S. Scrum triglyceride estimation. Scand. J Clin Lab Invest 1966; 18:668-670.  Back to cited text no. 8    
9.Nityanand S, Asthana OP, Gupta PO, Kapoor NK, Dhawan BN. Clinical studies with 'Gugulipid', a new hypolipidemic agent. Ind J Pharmacol 1981; 13:59-60.  Back to cited text no. 9    
10.Sainani GS, Desai DB, Gorhe NH, Natu SM, Pise DV, Sainani PG, et al. Effect of dietary garlic and onion on serum lipid profile in Jain community. Ind J Med Res 1979; 69:776-780.  Back to cited text no. 10    
11.Satyavati GV. Effect of an indigenous drug on disorders of lipid metabolism with special reference to atherosclerosis and obesity (medoroga). Thesis submitted for the degree of Doctor of Ayurvedic Medicine. Banaras Hindu University.  Back to cited text no. 11    
12.Satyavati GV, Dwarkanath C, Tripathi SN. Experimental studies on the hypocholesterolemic effect of Commiphora mukul. Engl (Guggulu). Ind J Med Res 1969; 57:1950-1962.  Back to cited text no. 12    
13.Seigul S. In: "Non-parametric Statistics for Behavioural Sciences." New York: McGraw Hill Book Co, Inc; 1956, pp 96-98.  Back to cited text no. 13    
14.Zlatkis A, Zak B, Boyle AJ. A new method for the direct determination of serum cholesterol. J Lab Clin Med 1953; 41:486-492.   Back to cited text no. 14    

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Online since 12th February '04
2004 - Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Official Publication of the Staff Society of the Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, India
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