Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
 Open access journal indexed with Index Medicus & ISI's SCI  
Users online: 553  
Home | Subscribe | Feedback | Login 
About Latest Articles Back-Issues Article Submission Resources Sections Etcetera Contact
 :: Next article
 :: Previous article 
 :: Table of Contents
 ::  Similar in PUBMED
 ::  Search Pubmed for
 ::  Search in Google Scholar for
 ::Related articles
 ::  Article in PDF (13 KB)
 ::  Citation Manager
 ::  Access Statistics
 ::  Reader Comments
 ::  Email Alert *
 ::  Add to My List *
* Registration required (free) 

  IN THIS Article
 ::  Abstract
 ::  Introduction
 ::  Case report
 ::  Discussion
 ::  Acknowledgment
 ::  References
 ::  Article Figures

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded100    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal


Year : 1992  |  Volume : 38  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 210-1,207

Primary extrapancreatic gastrinoma.

Dept of Surgery, Seth GS Medical College, Parel, Bombay, Maharashtra.

Correspondence Address:
P R Pai
Dept of Surgery, Seth GS Medical College, Parel, Bombay, Maharashtra.

Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

PMID: 0001307600

Rights and PermissionsRights and Permissions

 :: Abstract 

Extrapancreatic gastrinoma is a rare clinical entity encountered in surgical practice. A patient was referred to us who had a history of recurring symptoms of peptic ulcer disease and ulcer perforation located at an unusual site. Serum gastrin levels were abnormally high. Scopy revealed multiple ulcers in the antrum and duodenum. A mass superior to the head of the pancreas was detected on USG, which later on found to be a separate mass on CT scan. The tumour was excised and confirmed on histopathology. Results of conservative surgery were found to be satisfactory.

Keywords: Adolescent, Case Report, Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal, Gastrinoma, blood,diagnosis,surgery,Gastrins, blood,Human, Male, Pancreatic Neoplasms, blood,diagnosis,surgery,Tomography, X-Ray Computed, Vagotomy, Truncal,

How to cite this article:
Pai P R, Shahani R B, Shah H K, Dalvi A N, Samsi A B, Vora I M. Primary extrapancreatic gastrinoma. J Postgrad Med 1992;38:210-1,207

How to cite this URL:
Pai P R, Shahani R B, Shah H K, Dalvi A N, Samsi A B, Vora I M. Primary extrapancreatic gastrinoma. J Postgrad Med [serial online] 1992 [cited 2020 Jun 6];38:210-1,207. Available from:

  ::   Introduction Top

Extrapancreatic gastrinoma is a rare clinical entity encountered in surgical practice. Diagnosis and management of gastrinomas had undergone a profound change over the last thirty years. Better pre-operative localisation and newer drugs have changed the management from radical to conservative therapy. We had one such case under our care. Rarity of this condition and changing trends in management, have prompted us to publish this data. The literature is also briefly reviewed.

  ::   Case report Top

SS, a 16-year-old male, was referred to us with suspicion of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome from a peripheral Hospital. Two months prior to his presentation to us, he had undergone an emergency laparotomy for peritionitis where a perforation was found to be located in an unusual oosition viz. in the first part of jejunum, 5 cm from duodeno-jejunal flexture raising the possibility of Zoilinger-Effison syndrome. He also gave a 2 year history for H2 receptor antagonist controlled recurrent duodenal ulcer symptoms.

On examination, he was found to be averagely built and nourished with a well healed, right upper paramedian scar on the abdomen.

Basic biochemical profile was within normal limits. Oesophago-gastro-duodenoscopy revealed multiple ulcers in the antrum as well as first and second part of duodenum. Biopsies from the antrum, body and fundus of the stomach were normal. Uitransonography revealed presence of a well-circumscribed mass superior to the head of the pancreas. No other abnormality was detected. Serum gastrin levels were 919 ng/1 (Normal upto 90 ng/l). CT scan of abdomen confirmed the presence of a well-encapsulated mass lying separate form the pancreas (See [Figure - 1] on page 207). Serum calcium, phosphorus, parathormone levels along with radiographs of skull, hands and spine were normal ruling out hyperparathyroidism (MEN 1).

The patient was explored through the previous incision. A well-encapsulated yellowish orange mass 4cm x 4 cm was seen lying superior to the head of pancreas in the gastrinoma triangle. The mass was not adherent to any vital structures and could be easily excised. Rest of the pancreas was normal to palpation. Duodenum was normal. No other abnormality was detected. Truncal vagotomy with pyloroplasty was done. Patient had an uneventful post- operative course and was well nine months after surgery. Post- operative serum gastrin levels were normal.

Tumour was composed of monotonous and uniform cells, which were rounded or polyhedral with scanty cytoplasm and uniform hyperchromatic nuclei. Tumour cells were arranged in a typical endocrine pattern having ribbon like cords, solid alveoli, rosette like acinar formation or a sheet like pattern with in between connective tissue stroma. (See [Figure - 2]).

  ::   Discussion Top

The gastrinoma or Zollinger-Ellison syndrome is one of the fulminant clinical presentations of peptic ulcer disease caused by gastric hyperacidity and gastrin producing islet cell tumour.

A gastrinoma is typically suspected in a young with symptoms of fulminant complications of peptic ulcer disease or those with poor response to therapy. Incidence of gastrinoma is reported to by anywhere between 1 in 200 to 1 in 1000 cases of duodenal ulcer disease [1]. Perforations occur in about 15% of cases[2].

Most of these tumours are localised in the gastrinoma triangle as described by Stabile et al[3]. Localisation of these tumours especially when small is possible only in 30-40% cases in spite of newer investigations like ultrasonography, CT scan, angiography, isotope scanning and selective venous sampling[2].

In our case, the tumour was found to be located superiorly free from the head of pancreas, posterior to the lesser omentum. Extrapancreatic, extraintestinal gastrinomas usually occur in lymph nodes[4],[5],[6],[7]. Absence of lymph nodal architecture in our tumour and presence of normal pancreas without involvement of peripancreatic nodes led us to the conclusion of extra-pancreatic, extraintestinal, extranodal gastrinoma.

Management of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome has undergone a radical change following advances in diagnostic localizing modalities and drug treatment. Drugs like omeprazole and SMS-201-905 (somatostatin analogue)[2] effectively control hyperacidity and symptomatology. Age-old therapy of i:otal gastrectomy with attendant morbidity/mortality has now been replaced by enucleation[9] or local excision[10] of tumour with or without parietal cell vagotomy[10],[11]. Patients so treated have done well even at 5 year follow-up.

In our case, local excision with truncal vagotomy and drainage succeeded in achieving normal post-operative gastrin levels and abolishing symptomatology of the patient at 9 months follow-up.

  ::   Acknowledgment Top

We thank Dr PM Pai, the Dean, Seth GS Medical College and King Edward Memorial Hospital, Mumbai for allowing us to publish the hospital data.

 :: References Top

1. Rosin RD. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. In: Schwartz ST, Ellis H, Hussen WC, editors. Maingot's Abdominal Operations: Endocrine Pancreatic Tumours, 9th ed. Connecticut, USA: Prentice-Hall International Inc; 1990, pp 1623-1627.  Back to cited text no. 1    
2.Norton JA, Jensen RT. Unresolved surgical issues in the management of patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. World J Surg 1991; 15:151-159.  Back to cited text no. 2    
3.Stabile BE, Morrow DJ, Passaro E. The gastrinoma triangle: operative implications. Am J Surg 1984; 147:25-31.  Back to cited text no. 3    
4.Howard TJ, Zinner MJ, Stabile BE, Passaro E. Gastrinoma excision for cure. A prospective analysis. Ann Surg 1990; 211:9-14.  Back to cited text no. 4    
5.Norton JA, Doppman JL, Collen MJ. Prospective study of gastrinoma localisation and resection in patients with ZollingerEllison syndrome. Ann Surg 1986; 204:468-469.  Back to cited text no. 5    
6.Vogel SB, Wolfe MM, McGuigan JE, Hawkins IF, Howard RT, Woodward ER. Localisation and resection of gastrinomas in Zollinger- Olision syndrome. Ann Surg 1987; 205:550-556.  Back to cited text no. 6    
7.Wise SR, Johnston J, Sparks J, Carey LC, Ellison EC. Gastrinoma: the predictive value of peroperative localisation. Surgery 1989; 106:1087-1093.  Back to cited text no. 7    
8.Wolfe MM, Jensen RT. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Current concepts in diagnosis and management. N Engl J Med 1986; 317:1200-1208.  Back to cited text no. 8    
9.Vinik AI, Thompson N. Controversies in the management of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Ann Intern Med 1986; 105:956-959.  Back to cited text no. 9    
10.Bornman PC, Marks IN, Mee AS, Price S. Favourable response to conservative surgery for extra-pancreatic gastrinoma with lymph node metastases. Br J Surg. 1987; 74:198-201.  Back to cited text no. 10    
11.Richardson CT, Peters MN, Feldman M. Treatment of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome with exploratory laparotomy, proximal gastric vagotomy, and H2-receptor antagonists. A prospective study. Gasteroenterology 1965; 89:357-367.   Back to cited text no. 11    


[Figure - 1], [Figure - 2]


Print this article  Email this article
Previous article Next article
Online since 12th February '04
2004 - Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Official Publication of the Staff Society of the Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, India
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow