Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
 Open access journal indexed with Index Medicus & ISI's SCI  
Users online: 4255  
Home | Subscribe | Feedback | Login 
About Latest Articles Back-Issues Article Submission Resources Sections Etcetera Contact
 
  NAVIGATE Here 
  Search
 
 :: Next article
 :: Previous article 
 :: Table of Contents
  
 RESOURCE Links
 ::  Similar in PUBMED
 ::  Search Pubmed for
 ::  Search in Google Scholar for
 ::Related articles
 ::  Article in PDF (281 KB)
 ::  Citation Manager
 ::  Access Statistics
 ::  Reader Comments
 ::  Email Alert *
 ::  Add to My List *
* Registration required (free) 

  IN THIS Article
 ::  Discussion
 ::  References
 ::  Article Figures

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed12401    
    Printed245    
    Emailed5    
    PDF Downloaded216    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 3    

Recommend this journal


 


 
IMAGES IN MEDICINE
Year : 2000  |  Volume : 46  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 286-7

Images in medicine: Hashimoto's thyroiditis with orbitopathy and dermopathy.


Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi - 221 005, India. , India

Correspondence Address:
S K Singh
Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi - 221 005, India.
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


PMID: 11435659

Rights and PermissionsRights and Permissions



Keywords: Case Report, Edema, etiology,Female, Human, Middle Age, Orbital Diseases, etiology,Skin Diseases, etiology,Thyroiditis, Autoimmune, complications,diagnosis,physiopathology,Visual Acuity,


How to cite this article:
Singh S K, Singh K K, Sahay R K. Images in medicine: Hashimoto's thyroiditis with orbitopathy and dermopathy. J Postgrad Med 2000;46:286

How to cite this URL:
Singh S K, Singh K K, Sahay R K. Images in medicine: Hashimoto's thyroiditis with orbitopathy and dermopathy. J Postgrad Med [serial online] 2000 [cited 2019 Dec 6];46:286. Available from: http://www.jpgmonline.com/text.asp?2000/46/4/286/255


A fifty-year female patient presented with weight gain and facial puffiness for one and half years. She was reported to have constipation, change in voice and cold intolerance since the onset of her illness. One year later she had noticed periorbital oedema and prominence of eyeballs. She had developed diminished visual acuity and occasional diplopia for one month. She was menopausal for two years.

Clinical examination revealed a pulse of 80/min regular, blood pressure of 130/90 mmHg, coarse skin and normal hair. Her height was 157 cm and weight was 68 kg. Systemic examination was unremarkable. Thyroid gland was not enlarged (confirmed by ultrasonography). She had coarse velvet patch of skin over her shins [Figure - 1]. Eye examination showed bilateral proptosis measuring 23 mm with conjunctival injection and lagophthalmos. Lateral eyeball movement was restricted and convergence was markedly affected [Figure - 2]. Her visual acuity was 6/60 in both eyes. Fundus examination was normal. Intraocular tension was 40 mmHg in right eye and 42 mmHg in left eye in upward gaze only. Pupillary reaction to light was normal. She had motor power of grade 5/5 distally and 4/5 proximally. Delayed relaxation of ankle jerk was observed. Laboratory investigation included haemoglobin of 10.4 g/dl, hypochromic microcytic anaemia in general blood picture with normal WBC counts. Thyroid hormone profile by radioimmunoassay (using commercial kit supplied by BARC Mumbai) was done on two occasions and values were: T3 1.45 and 1.49 nmol/l (normal 1.1-2.9 nmol/l) T4 50.7 and 17.9 (g/dl (normal 64-154 nmol/l) and TSH 38.8 and 45mU/l (normal 0.5-3.5 mU/l). CT scan of orbit revealed marked extraocular muscle thickening [Figure - 3] and anti-TPO antibody was 254 IU/ml (Ranbaxy Specialty Ltd, Mumbai, normal <50 IU/ml). Diagnosis of infiltrative orbitopathy with dermopathy with hypothyroidism was established and she was given thyroxine 150 ?g with prednisolone 60-mg in divided doses and acetazolamide 250 mg twice daily. After 4 weeks of treatment her vision improved to 6/18 and lagophthalmos was absent. Steroid was tapered in 4 weeks while she continued with thyroxine replacement (150 ?g/day).




  ::   Discussion Top


Autoimmune thyroid disease encompasses a spectrum of thyroid disorders with Graves’ disease at one end and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis at the other end. Sometimes changes of Graves’ disease can supervene in the presence of histological changes of Hashimoto’s disease.[1] In such situation occurrence of infiltrative orbitopathy is not unusual.[2] Infiltrative orbitopathy may occur in 50% of patients with Graves’ disease.[3] Dermopathy is late manifestation of Graves’ disease and 99% patients with this feature also develop orbitopathy.[4] The prevalence of orbitopathy is only 2% in patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis.[5] Patients with subacute thyroiditis and high titre of anti-microsomal antibodies have also been reported to develop ophthalmopathy similar to Graves’ disease.[6] Only one case report of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis with ophthalmopathy and dermopathy could be found in the review of literature.[7]

The pathogenesis of the orbitopathy and dermopathy is not well understood. Under the influence of cytokines produced by lymphocytes, the fibroblasts secrete hydrophilic glycosamino-glycans. Accumulation of this compound impairs the function of the muscular tissue in the orbit and eventually fibrosis sets in. Such changes are also responsible for the characteristic lesions of dermopathy or pretibial myxoedema seen on the shins. Expression of TSH-receptor mRNA by retro-orbital tissue and fibroblast in the dermis has been observed and the antibodies against TSH receptor might cross react with these tissues and trigger the above cascade of events.[3],[8]

Presence of orbitopathy and dermopathy in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis can be explained on the basis of sharing of antigens of thyroid (TPO and Tg) with orbital and dermal fibroblasts and cross specificity of antibodies with these antigens. It is similar to TSH-R antigen and antibodies in Graves’ disease and triggering of the events described above. Alternatively a second speculation can also be put forward. It has been reported that thyrotropin receptor antibodies (TRAB) are also expressed in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis.[9] However, hyperthyroidism does not occur as the cytotoxic antibodies are produced in abundance and they overcome the stimulatory effect of thyrotropin receptor antibody and cause thyroid destruction. The effect of the thyrotropin receptor antibodies on orbital and dermal tissue remains uninhibited, resulting in development of orbitopathy and dermopathy. Cronin et al[7] reported a similar case of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis with ophthalmopathy and pretibial myxoedema and they have also proposed that the TSH receptor antibody of Graves’ disease which was raised in their case was ineffective in producing hyperthyroidism because of thyroid destruction due to Hashimoto’s disease. In the present case, TSH receptor antibody activity could not be evaluated.

In conclusion this case report emphasises the fact that Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is at one end of spectrum of autoimmune thyroid diseases with Graves’ disease being on the other end. The thyroid function varies from low to high respectively in these two forms having orbitopathy and dermopathy in common. However more observation may substantiate this supposition.

 
 :: References Top

1. Werner SC. Euthyroid patients with early eye signs of Graves’ disease. Ann Intern Med 1955;18:608-610.  Back to cited text no. 1    
2.Werner SC. Modification of classification of the eye changes of Graves’ disease. Recommendation of the Ad Hoc committee of the American Thyroid Association (letter) J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1977;44:203-204.  Back to cited text no. 2    
3.Bunch HB, Wortofsky L. Graves’ ophthalmopathy: current concepts regarding pathogenesis and management. Endocrine Rev 1993;14:747-793.  Back to cited text no. 3    
4.Brownlie BE, Newton OA, Singh SP. Ophthalmopathy associated with primary hypothyroidism. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 1975;79:691-699.   Back to cited text no. 4    
5.Simon LL, Justen JM, Giraldo AA, Krco CJ, Kong YC. Activation of cytotoxic T cells and effector cells in experimental autoimmune thyroiditis by shared determinants of mouse and human thyroglobulin. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 1986;39:345-356.   Back to cited text no. 5    
6.Iitaka M, Momotani N, Hisaoka T, Noh JY, Ishikawa N, Ishii J, et al. TSH receptor antibody-associated thyroid dysfunction following subacute thyroiditis. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1998;48:445-453.   Back to cited text no. 6    
7.Cronin CC, Higgins TM, Murphy D, Ferriss JB. Concomitant Graves’ disease and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, presenting as primary hypothyroidism. Ir Med J 1996;89:141-142.   Back to cited text no. 7    
8.Bahn PS, Heufelder AE. Pathogenesis of Graves’ ophthalmopathy. N Engl J Med 1993;329:1468-1475.  Back to cited text no. 8    
9.Wyse EP, McConahey WM, Woolner LB, Scholz DA, Kearns TP. Ophthalmopathy with out hyperthyroidism in patients with histological Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1968;28:1623-1629.   Back to cited text no. 9    


    Figures

[Figure - 1], [Figure - 2], [Figure - 3]

This article has been cited by
1 Immunity to extracellular matrix antigens is associated with ultrastructural alterations of the stroma and stratified epithelium basement membrane in the skin of Hashimotos thyroiditis patients
Bei R, Mentuccia D, Trono P, et al.
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF IMMUNOPATHOLOGY AND PHARMACOLOGY. 2006; 19 (3): 661-673
[Pubmed]
2 Pretibial myxedema - Pathophysiology and treatment options
Fatourechi V
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL DERMATOLOGY. 2005; 6 (5): 295-309
[Pubmed]
3 Autoimmune thyroid diseases: Etiology, pathogenesis, and dermatologic manifestations
Ai J, Leonhardt JM, Heymann WR
JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF DERMATOLOGY. 2003; 48 (5): 641-659
[Pubmed]



 

Top
Print this article  Email this article
Previous article Next article
Online since 12th February '04
© 2004 - Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Official Publication of the Staff Society of the Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, India
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow