Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
 Open access journal indexed with Index Medicus & ISI's SCI  
Users online: 1226  
Home | Subscribe | Feedback | Login 
About Latest Articles Back-Issues Article Submission Resources Sections Etcetera Contact
 
  NAVIGATE Here 
  Search
 
 :: Next article
 :: Previous article 
 :: Table of Contents
  
 RESOURCE Links
 ::  Similar in PUBMED
 ::  Search Pubmed for
 ::  Search in Google Scholar for
 ::  Article in PDF (147 KB)
 ::  Citation Manager
 ::  Access Statistics
 ::  Reader Comments
 ::  Email Alert *
 ::  Add to My List *
* Registration required (free) 

  IN THIS Article
 ::  Chemical structure
 ::  Mechanism of Action
 ::  Pharmacokinetics
 ::  Drug interactions
 ::  Comparison of Ef...
 ::  Adverse Drug Effects
 ::  Dosage and admin...
 ::  Monitoring
 ::  Contra-indications
 ::  Reproductive Adv...
 ::  Drug elimination...
 ::  Role of leflunom...
 ::  Constraints of L...
 ::  Other potential ...
 ::  Conclusion
 ::  References

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed15116    
    Printed318    
    Emailed24    
    PDF Downloaded383    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 13    

Recommend this journal


 


 
DRUG REVIEW
Year : 2004  |  Volume : 50  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 154-157

Leflunomide: A novel disease modifying anti-rheumatic drug


Department of Medicine and Rheumatology Services, Seth G. S. Medical College and K. E. M. Hospital, Parel, Mumbai - 400012, India

Date of Submission24-Feb-04
Date of Decision06-Mar-04
Date of Acceptance27-Apr-04
Date of Web Publication06-Jul-04

Correspondence Address:
Vijay P Kale
Department of Medicine and Rheumatology Services, Seth G. S. Medical College and K. E. M. Hospital, Parel, Mumbai - 400012
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


PMID: 15235221

Rights and PermissionsRights and Permissions




How to cite this article:
Kale VP, Bichile L S. Leflunomide: A novel disease modifying anti-rheumatic drug. J Postgrad Med 2004;50:154-7

How to cite this URL:
Kale VP, Bichile L S. Leflunomide: A novel disease modifying anti-rheumatic drug. J Postgrad Med [serial online] 2004 [cited 2019 Oct 21];50:154-7. Available from: http://www.jpgmonline.com/text.asp?2004/50/2/154/8264


Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most common form of inflammatory arthritis affecting approximately 0.5 to 1% of the population. It follows a progressive course with evidence of structural joint damage occurring as early as 4 weeks after the onset of symptoms and usually gets fully established by 2 years in untreated patients.[1] Based on this observation, current treatment guidelines emphasize the early use of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), a class of therapeutic agents that have the potential to minimize or prevent joint damage.[2] However, most of the current DMARDs show loss of efficacy with time and/or development of serious adverse effects. There is therefore a need for newer DMARDs with better efficacy and a better safety profile. Leflunomide (active metabolite A77 1726) is one such new drug with novel immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties that has shown promising results in terms of efficacy and safety for the treatment of this crippling autoimmune disease and is a welcome addition to the roster of anti-rheumatoid drugs.




 :: Chemical structure Top


Leflunomide, an isoxazole derivative, is a prodrug that is rapidly and almost completely metabolised after absorption to its active metabolite A77 1726 (open ring metabolite- malononitrilamide).[3]



The overall reaction involves the opening of the five-membered ring, forming cyanide and a hydroxyl group. This occurs quickly in the gut walls and liver.




 :: Mechanism of Action Top


A77 1726 has several mechanisms of action as listed below-

1) Primary immunomodulating action - Inhibition of de novo pyrimidine synthesis. [3], [4]

Activated lymphocytes in RA require an eightfold increase in their levels of ribonucleotide uridine monophosphate (rUMP) and other pyrimidine ribonucleotides in order to progress from G1 to the S phase of the cell cycle for proliferation and they must use de novo synthesis of pyrimidines. A77 1726 acts reversibly on the critical mitochondrial rate-limiting enzyme dihydroorate dehydrogenase (DHODH) required for the de novo synthesis of rUMP. Inhibition of this enzyme leads to decreased rUMP, decreased DNA and RNA synthesis, inhibition of T cell proliferation and G1 cell cycle arrest. T cell-dependent B cell formation of autoantibodies, including IgA and IgG isotypes, is also inhibited by A77 1726.[5]



2) Anti-inflammatory actions-







  • A77 1726 inhibits the activation and gene expression of nuclear factor (NF) kB required for the activation of genes for various inflammatory cytokines and metallo-proteinases.[6]


  • A77 1726 increases the production of immunosuppressive transforming growth factor-b1 protein (TGF-b1) and inhibits theh production of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-a and interleukin 1b.[4]







 :: Pharmacokinetics Top
[4]

After oral administration leflunomide is rapidly metabolised to its major active form A77 1726 in the gut wall, plasma and in the liver. The parent compound is rarely detected in the plasma. Peak plasma levels of A77 1726 are reached 6-12 h after oral administration of leflunomide. Bioavailability of A77 1726 is unaffected by high fat meal. It has a low volume of distribution as it is >99% protein-bound. A77 1726 undergoes entero-hepatic circulation and biliary recycling may contribute to its long elimination half-life (~ 2 weeks). A77 1726 is further metabolised and excreted in the urine as an oxalinic acid derivative and in the unchanged form in faeces.




 :: Drug interactions Top


There is limited data regarding drug interactions with leflunomide. In vivo drug interaction studies have demonstrated a lack of a significant drug interaction between leflunomide and methotrexate.[8],[16] Levels of leflunomide are increased after multiple dosing with rifampin.[8] A77 1726 inhibits CYP2C9 that metabolises many NSAIDS. However, no clinically relevant interactions were observed in clinical trials in patients receiving leflunomide with NSAIDS, which are so frequently used in RA treatment.[8] No interactions have been documented with oral contraceptives that were used by several subjects in the clinical trials.




 :: Comparison of Efficacy, Safety and Tolerability with established DMARDs Top


The clinical efficacy and slowing of radiological progression in active RA with leflunomide monotherapy as compared to placebo, methotrexate (MTX) and sulphasalazine (SSZ) has been evaluated in 6 large, double-blind, randomised controlled trials. A brief overview of these trials and the outcomes measured are shown in the [table].



A systematic review and meta-analysis of the above 6 trials by Oshir et al[15] concludes that





  • Comparison with Placebo: The pooled estimates of the clinical efficacy of leflunomide shows it to be significantly better than placebo at 6 and 12 months in all the clinical outcomes. Progression of radiological changes was also significantly slower in the leflunomide-treated group than the placebo group. Adverse events in the leflunomide-treated group that were significantly increased as compared to placebo and included alopecia, gastrointestinal symptoms and elevated liver function tests.






Efficacy and safety in combination with MTX

A recent randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial by Kremer et al,[16] showed statistically significant efficacy in the ACR20 response rate and functional disability when compared with the placebo-MTX combination for patients with active RA despite stable doses of MTX. The combination of the two anti-metabolites was well tolerated and can be used safely with appropriate liver enzyme and haematological monitoring. No significant differences in the adverse effects were seen when compared with the placebo-MTX group.



Long-term efficacy and safety of leflunomide

A 5-year open-labelled, non-controlled extension study by Kalden et al,[17] demonstrated that the early efficacy of leflunomide [ACR20, ACR50, ACR70 response rates and health assessment questionnaire (HAQ) scores] seen at 1 year in patients with RA was maintained for up to 5 years. The long-term safety profile was no different from previous trials. No new adverse events were observed and liver functions were normal in the majority of patients throughout the study. The subjects included in this extension study were those who had completed full 24 months of leflunomide treatment in the previous 2 Phase III trials.[11],[13]




 :: Adverse Drug Effects Top


The major adverse events reported in the clinical trials included gastrointestinal symptoms (diarrhoea, dyspepsia, nausea, abdominal pain, oral ulcers), elevated liver function tests, skin rash/allergic reactions, alopecia, infections, weight loss and hypertension.[15] Only GI symptoms, alopecia, and hypertension were found to be significantly more in the leflunomide group as compared to MTX.[15] Adverse events were similar when comparing leflunomide and SSZ.[15] New onset hypertension as a side-effect of leflunomide therapy has been demonstrated in a prospective trial by Rozman et al,[18] highlighting the need for regular measurement of blood pressure during leflunomide treatment. A rise in the systolic blood pressure was noted after 4 weeks of initiating treatment with leflunomide. By contrast, the rise in diastolic pressure appeared later.



Less frequently seen adverse events[8] include urinary tract infections, respiratory tract infections and bronchitis, and minor musculoskeletal problems (backache, tenosynovitis, myalgias). There have been rare reports of sepsis, leukopenia, pancytopenia,[8] serious skin reactions (Stevens-Johnsons syndrome,[8] toxic epidermal necrolysis[8] and erythema multiforme-like drug eruption[19] and interstitial lung disease[8] in patients receiving leflunomide alone.




 :: Dosage and administration Top


Leflunomide therapy is initiated orally with a loading dose of 100 mg/day administered once daily for 3 days to hasten attainment of the steady state concentration (Css), and maintenance dose of 20 mg/day. If the dose of 20 mg/day is not well tolerated then the dosage is decreased to 10 mg/day. Dosages more than 20 mg/day are not recommended.



Recent open-labelled trials[20],[21] with weekly 100 mg Leflunomide showed the same efficacy and less toxicity than the conventional daily dosage of leflunomide. Another important benefit was a reduction in the monthly cost of Leflunomide treatment. These findings with a weekly dosage of leflunomide are encouraging but more comparative and blinded trials are required to confirm the same.




 :: Monitoring Top




Patients taking leflunomide should have a complete haemogram and ALT (SGPT), monitored at baseline and monthly for 6 months following initiation of therapy, if stable every 6 to 8 weeks thereafter. In addition, if leflunomide and MTX are given concomitantly, American College of Rheumatology (ACR) guidelines for monitoring methotrexate-induced liver toxicity must be followed.




 :: Contra-indications Top


There is no data regarding the safety of leflunomide in children with JRA and it is not recommended for patients < 18 yrs of age. It is contraindicated in those with hepatic insufficiency. Caution needs to be exercised in patients with chronic renal insufficiency as plasma levels of A77 1726 are increased with impaired kidney function.




 :: Reproductive Adverse effects Top
[8]

Leflunomide is contraindicated in pregnant females and those not on reliable contraception because of demonstrated teratogenic effects in mice. Although male-mediated fetotoxic effects are not known, men wishing to have a child should avoid the drug. Women/men on leflunomide and wanting to have a child should undergo drug elimination procedure and ensure non-detectable plasma levels (less than 0.02 mg/L or 0.02 g/mL).[8]




 :: Drug elimination procedure Top
[8]

If there are indications to stop the drug on account of adverse reactions, overdosage or reproductive issues, the following is undertaken to achieve non-detectable plasma levels (less than 0.02 mg/L or 0.02 g/mL)

1) Administer cholestyramine 8 g 3 times daily for 11 days. (The 11 days do not need to be consecutive unless there is a need to lower the plasma level rapidly.) Verify plasma levels less than 0.02 mg/L (0.02 g/mL) by two separate tests at least 14 days apart. If plasma levels are higher than 0.02 mg/L, additional cholestyramine treatment should be considered.

2) Administration of activated charcoal (powder made into a suspension) orally or via nasogastric tube (50 g every 6 hours for 24 hours) in addition to the above, if rapid lowering of the drug levels is indicated.




 :: Role of leflunomide in the management of rheumatoid arthritis Top


The efficacy and safety of leflunomide as monotherapy is comparable to that of first-line DMARDs-MTX and SSZ. However, rheumatologists have differing opinions regarding the exact place of leflunomide in the hierarchy of DMARDs for RA. Presently, leflunomide is considered for use in the following clinical situations -

1) As monotherapy in place of MTX or SSZ when the latter drugs are poorly tolerated or contraindicated.[22],[23]

2) Refractory RA patients- In combination (add-on therapy) with MTX for patients with persistent active RA despite recommended doses of MTX.[16],[22]



Further studies and longer follow-up periods are required before it can be advocated as first-line therapy for use in combination with other DMARDS.




 :: Constraints of Leflunomide therapy with respect to Indian patients Top


1) High cost of therapy as compared to established DMARDs.

2) Lack of facilities to monitor blood levels during drug elimination procedures when indicated.




 :: Other potential indications for Leflunomide Top


Leflunomide as an immunomodulator is presently being evaluated for use in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus,[24] Wegener's granulomatosis,[25] Crohn's disease,[26] and solid tumours.[27]




 :: Conclusion Top




Leflunomide, a new DMARD with novel immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties, has been added to the armamentarium against RA after more than 10 years of use of established DMARDs. It has shown equivalent efficacy, safety and tolerability when compared with the existing first-line DMARDs - SSZ and MTX- in controlled clinical trials. With extended experience in routine clinical practice, it may be a first choice when starting DMARD treatment for this progressive and disabling disease. There are also encouraging results with weekly leflunomide therapy which, if confirmed with large-scale blinded trials, may result in lesser cost of therapy, less side-effects and better compliance without loss of efficacy.

 
 :: References Top

1.Fuchs HA, Kaye JJ, Callahan LF, Nance EP, Pincus T. Evidence of significant radiographic damage in rheumatoid arthritis within the first 2 years of disease. J Rheumatol 1989;16:585-91.  Back to cited text no. 1    
2.Guidelines for the management of rheumatoid arthritis. American College of Rheumatology Ad Hoc Committee on Clinical Guidelines. Arthritis Rheum 1996;39:713-22.  Back to cited text no. 2    
3.Breedveld FC, Dayer JM. Leflunomide: mode of action in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 2000;59:841-9   Back to cited text no. 3    
4.Prakash A, Jarvis B. Leflunomide- A review of its use in active Rheumatoid arthritis. Drugs 1999;58:1137-64  Back to cited text no. 4    
5.Siemasko KF, Chong ASF, Williams JW, Bremer EG, Finnegan A. Regulation of B cell function by the immunsuppressive agent leflunomide. Transplantation 1996;61:635-42   Back to cited text no. 5    
6.Manna SK, Aggarwal BB. Immunosuppressive leflunomide metabolite (A77 1726) blocks TNF-dependent nuclear factor-kappa B activation and gene expression. J Immunol 1999;162:2095-102.  Back to cited text no. 6    
7.Hamilton LC, Vojnovic I, Marner TD. A771726, the active metabolite of leflunomide, directly inhibits the activity of cyclo-oxygenase-2 in vitro and in vivo in a substrate-sensitive manner. Br J Pharmacol 1999;127:1589-96.   Back to cited text no. 7    
8.Arava (Leflunomide) Prescribing Information as of September 2003. Aventis Pharmaceuticals Inc. Kansas City, MO 64137   Back to cited text no. 8    
9.Mladenovic V, Domljan Z, Rozman B, Jajic I, Mihajlovic D, Dordevic J, et al. Safety and effectiveness of leflunomide in the treatment of patients with active rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1995;38:1595-603.  Back to cited text no. 9    
10.Strand V, Cohen S, Schiff M, Weaver A, Fleischmann R, Cannon G, et al. Treatment of active rheumatoid arthritis with leflunomide compared with placebo and methotrexate. Arch Intern Med 1999;159:2542-50.  Back to cited text no. 10    
11.Emery P, Breedveld FC, Lemmel EM, Kaltwasser JP, Dawes PT, Gomor B, et al. A comparison of the efficacy and safety of leflunomide and methotrexate for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2000;39:655-65.  Back to cited text no. 11    
12.Cohen S, Cannon GW, Schiff M, Weaver A, Fox R, Olsen N, et al. Two-year, blinded, randomised, controlled trial of treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with leflunomide compared with methotrexate. Arthritis Rheum 2001;44:1984-92.  Back to cited text no. 12    
13.Smolen JS, Kalden JR, Scott DL, Rozman B, Kvien TK, Larsen A, et al. Efficacy and safety of leflunomide compared with placebo and sulphasalazine in active rheumatoid arthritis: a double-blind, randomised, multicentric trial. Lancet 1999;353:259-66.  Back to cited text no. 13    
14.Scott DL, Smolen JS, Kalden JR, Van de Putte LB, Larsen A, Kvien TK, et al. Treatment of active rheumatoid arthritis with leflunomide: two year follow-up of a double-blind, placebo controlled trial versus sulphasalazine. Ann Rheum Dis 2001;60:913-23.  Back to cited text no. 14    
15.Osiri M, Shea B, Robinson V, Suarez-Almazor M, Strand V, Tugwell P, et al. Leflunomide for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Rheumatol 2003;30:1182-90.   Back to cited text no. 15    
16.Kremer JM, Genovese MC, Cannon GW, Caldwell JR, Cush JJ, Furst DE, et al. Concomitant leflunomide therapy in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis despite stable doses of methotrexate. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med. 2002;137:726-33.  Back to cited text no. 16    
17.Kalden JR, Schattenkirchner M, Sorensen H, Emery P, Deighton C, Rozman B, et al. The efficacy and safety of leflunomide in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis: a five-year follow-up study. Arthritis Rheum 2003;48:1513-20.  Back to cited text no. 17    
18.Rozman B, Praprotnik D, Logar D, Tomsic M, Hojnik M, Kos-Golja M, et al. Leflunomide and hypertension. Ann Rheum Dis 2002;61:567-9.  Back to cited text no. 18    
19.Fischer TW, Bauer HI, Graefe T, Barta U, Elsner P. Erythema multiforme-like drug eruption with oral involvement after intake of leflunomide. Dermatology 2003;207:386-9.  Back to cited text no. 19    
20.Jakez-Ocampo, Richaud-Patin Y, Granados J, Sanchez-Guerrero J, Llorente L. Weekly leflunomide as monotherapy for recent-onset rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2004;51:147-8.   Back to cited text no. 20    
21.Jaimes-Hernandez J, Robles- San Roman M, Suarez-Otero R, Daval Zugasti ME, Arroyo-Borrego S. Rheumatoid arthritis treatment with weekly leflunomide: an open-label study. J Rheumatol 2004;31:235-7.  Back to cited text no. 21    
22.Harris ED, Jr. Treatment of Rheumatoid arthritis. In: Ruddy S, Harris ED, Sledge CB, eds, Kelly's Textbook of Rheumatology. 6th ed, W B Saunders Company, 2000:p-1017.   Back to cited text no. 22    
23.Breedveld FC. Is there a place for leflunomide in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis? Lancet 2001;358:1198-200.   Back to cited text no. 23    
24.Remer CF, Weisman MH, Wallace DJ. Benefits of leflunomide in systemic lupus erythematosus:a pilot observational study. Lupus 2001;10:480-3.  Back to cited text no. 24    
25.Metzler C, Fink C, Lamprecht P, Gross WL, Reinhold-Keller E. Maintenance of remission with leflunomide in Wegener's granulomatosis. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2004;43:315-20.  Back to cited text no. 25    
26.Prajapati DN, Knox JF, Emmons J, Saeian K, Csuka ME, Binion DG. Leflunomide treatment of Crohn's disease patients intolerant to standard immunomodulator therapy. J Clin Gastroenterol 2003;37:125-8.  Back to cited text no. 26    
27.Eckhardt SG, Rizzo J, Sweeney KR, Cropp G, Baker SD, Kraynak MA, et al. Phase I and pharmacologic study of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor SU101 (Leflunomide) in patients with advanced solid tumours. Clin Oncol 1999;17:1095-104.  Back to cited text no. 27    



This article has been cited by
1 Effect of ABCG2 genotypes on the pharmacokinetics of A771726, an active metabolite of prodrug leflunomide, and association of A771726 exposure with serum uric acid level
Kim, K.-A., Joo, H.-J., Park, J.-Y.
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 2011; 67(2): 129-134
[Pubmed]
2 Pharmacokinetic comparison and bioequivalence of two leflunomide formulations in humans: A single dose, randomized, open-label, two-way crossover study
Park, J.-Y., Kim, K.-A., Lee, Y.-H., Park, S.-W., Lee, G.-H., Ryu, J.-H.
International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2010; 48(4): 291-295
[Pubmed]
3 Leflunomide
Mehta, V., Kisalay, S., Balachandran, C.
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology. 2009; 75(4): 422-424
[Pubmed]
4 New amides of 5-(4-chlorobenzoyl)aminoorotic acid: Their synthesis and biological activity
Regiec, A., Śpiewak, M., Jasztold-Howorko, R., Miȩdzybrodzki, R.
Archiv der Pharmazie. 2008; 341(11): 677-689
[Pubmed]
5 Treatment of lupus nephritis: Facing the era of immunotherapy
Aran, A.A., Putterman, C.
Panminerva Medica 50. 2008; 50(3): 235-245
[Pubmed]
6 Leflunomide and acute hypocalcemia
Young, M.G., Rijhsinghani, S.
Endocrine Practice. 2007; 13(7): 805-807
[Pubmed]
7 38 Drugs that act on the immune system: immunosuppressive and immunostimulatory drugs
Braun, F., Behrend, M.
Side Effects of Drugs Annual. 2007; 29: 424-479
[Pubmed]
8 Treatment of proliferative lupus nephritis - A critical approach
Buhaescu I, Covic A, Deray G
SEMINARS IN ARTHRITIS AND RHEUMATISM. 2007; 36 (4): 224-237
[Pubmed]
9 Clinical efficacy and adverse effects of weekly single dose leflunomide in refractory rheumatoid arthritis
Paul, B.J., Thachil, E.J., Jayachandran, N.V., Radhakrishnan, S.
Indian Journal of Rheumatology. 2007; 2(1): 3-7
[Pubmed]
10 Synthesis and biological activity of 4-amino-1-methyl-5-imidazolecarboxylic acid derivatives
Regiec, A., Mastalarz, H., Miedzybrodzki, R., Śmietańska, K., Jasztold-Howorko, R.
Letters in Drug Design and Discovery. 2006; 3(3): 192-199
[Pubmed]
11 Skin ulceration after leflunomide treatment in two patients with rheumatoid arthritis | [Hautulzerationen nach leflunomid therapie bei zwei patienten mit rheumatoidarthritis]
Jakob, A., Porstmann, R., Rompel, R.
JDDG - Journal of the German Society of Dermatology. 2006; 4(4): 324-327
[Pubmed]
12 Leflunomide and azathioprine combination in refractory Adult-onset Stills disease
Cefle A
ANNALS OF PHARMACOTHERAPY. 2005; 39 (4): 764-767
[Pubmed]
13 Systemic vasculitis: Still a challenging disease
Buhaescu, I., Covic, A., Levy, J.
American Journal of Kidney Diseases. 2005; 46(2): 173-185
[Pubmed]



 

Top
Print this article  Email this article
Previous article Next article
Online since 12th February '04
2004 - Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Official Publication of the Staff Society of the Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, India
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow