Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
 Open access journal indexed with Index Medicus & ISI's SCI  
Users online: 76  
Home | Subscribe | Feedback | Login 
About Latest Articles Back-Issues Article Submission Resources Sections Etcetera Contact
 
  NAVIGATE Here 
  Search
 
 :: Next article
 :: Previous article 
 :: Table of Contents
  
 RESOURCE Links
 ::  Similar in PUBMED
 ::  Search Pubmed for
 ::  Search in Google Scholar for
 ::Related articles
 ::  Article in PDF (566 KB)
 ::  Citation Manager
 ::  Access Statistics
 ::  Reader Comments
 ::  Email Alert *
 ::  Add to My List *
* Registration required (free) 

  IN THIS Article
 ::  Abstract
 ::  References

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed6950    
    Printed279    
    Emailed6    
    PDF Downloaded435    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 49    

Recommend this journal


 


 
ETHICS FORUM
Year : 2009  |  Volume : 55  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 131-134

Declaration of Helsinki, 2008: Implications for stakeholders in research


Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Parel, Mumbai - 400 012, India

Date of Submission02-Feb-2009
Date of Decision01-Mar-2009
Date of Acceptance12-Mar-2009
Date of Web Publication23-Jun-2009

Correspondence Address:
U M Thatte
Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Parel, Mumbai - 400 012
India
Login to access the Email id


DOI: 10.4103/0022-3859.52846

PMID: 19550060

Get Permissions


 :: Abstract 

The Declaration of Helsinki (DoH) was adopted by the World Medical Association (WMA) in 1964, as a statement of ethical principles, to provide guidance to physicians and other participants in medical research involving human subjects. Having undergone several amendments, the most recent version was approved on 18 October 2008, by the WMA General Assembly at Seoul, South Korea, replacing all previous versions. This version highlights issues such as, participant safety, the need to include participants from otherwise underrepresented groups, clinical trial registration, post-study access, usage of data and human tissues, compensating participants with research-related injury, and usage of placebo.
In this article, we discuss the major aspects of the 2008 version, including the impact of this version on all stakeholders in research, including, investigators, ethics committee members, sponsors, authors, editors, and reviewers.


Keywords: Clinical trial registration, compensation, post-study access, research ethics, revised declaration of Helsinki


How to cite this article:
Puri K S, Suresh K R, Gogtay N J, Thatte U M. Declaration of Helsinki, 2008: Implications for stakeholders in research. J Postgrad Med 2009;55:131-4

How to cite this URL:
Puri K S, Suresh K R, Gogtay N J, Thatte U M. Declaration of Helsinki, 2008: Implications for stakeholders in research. J Postgrad Med [serial online] 2009 [cited 2014 Apr 19];55:131-4. Available from: http://www.jpgmonline.com/text.asp?2009/55/2/131/52846


The Declaration of Helsinki [1] (DoH) was adopted by the World Medical Association (WMA) in 1964, as a statement of ethical principles, to provide guidance to physicians and other participants in medical research involving human subjects. The WMA [2] was established in 1947, after the Second World War, in reaction to the atrocities committed by Nazi physicians and is today a global body with 85 national medical associations (including the Indian Medical Association) representing approximately eight million physicians. [3]

The DoH is a global ethical standard for medical research and was approved at the WMA General Assembly by a majority vote of 75%, after extensive public debate. Almost all ethical guidelines such as, the Council for International Organizations of Medical Science [4] (CIOMS); the International Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects, 2002; the International Conference on Harmonisation - Good Clinical Practices [5] (ICH-GCP) Guidelines, 1996; the Amended Schedule Y; [6] and the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research on Human Participants, [7] have their origins in the principles of the DoH.

Historically, many guidelines have been developed following a public outcry against research atrocities (e.g., the Nuremberg Code following the Nazi tribunal and the Belmont Report following the Tuskegee scandal). Although the DoH may find its origins in the Nazi disaster, it has undergone several modifications over time as research ethics have evolved. Thus, significant additions were made in 1975, followed by minor amendments in 1983, 1989, and 1996. A major revision and reorganization was completed in 2000, at Edinburgh, where the use of placebos was specifically addressed. There were, however, many reactions to paragraph number 29 (regarding placebo). [1]

The process of revision of the DoH is a laborious one at that time involving many consultations and in this case began in May 2007, guided by a five member workgroup (Brazil, Germany, Japan, South Africa, and Sweden) with three rounds of stakeholder consultations. On 18 October, 2008, the WMA General Assembly meeting at Seoul, South Korea, overwhelmingly voted to adopt a completely new version. [8]

This new version addresses important points like emphasizing the need for providing access to research to otherwise underrepresented populations, registration of clinical trials, post-study access, and compensating subjects with research-related injuries, which have great implications for all stakeholders in clinical research today. [9] In this commentary we discuss the major highlights of the 2008 version and consider the ramifications.

Throughout all the versions of the Declaration, emphasis has always been given to the fact that, "it is the duty of the physician to promote and safeguard the health of patients". In the current version, the Declaration clearly specifies that this is also applicable to the "researcher physician". When a medical professional conducts research, his/her primary responsibility as a physician must not be in conflict with his/her scientific curiosity to find research answers, thus, his/her responsibility to safeguard the research participant's health and well-being is significantly enhanced.

The Declaration states that "populations that are underrepresented in medical research should be provided appropriate access to participation in research". This is important, as it clearly indicates the need to perform research among populations that otherwise would always enter the "exclusion criteria". For example, pregnant or lactating women, children, and the elderly, are often left out as they may be vulnerable. However, the absence of research (especially during the drug development process) suggests that it is often difficult to develop "evidence-based treatment guidelines" for these populations. Of course, the need to identify these participants as vulnerable and the necessity to have special protections in place remain as in the previous versions.

The older versions of the Declaration required continued research on current interventions for their effectiveness, efficiency, accessibility, and quality. However, the current version also highlights the need for continued research for their safety. This is relevant especially for drugs and devices, where the number of post-marketing recalls is increasing. The stories of the market recalls of rofecoxib [10] (recalled following the DSMB requirement to halt a clinical trial of the drug for a new indication due to safety concerns), and more recently rimonabant [11] (banned because of increased depression and suicidal attempts) illustrate the need for emphasis on safety during the clinical phases of drug development.

A disturbing aspect of the 2008 version of the Declaration is a missing sentence. The line, "the particular needs of the economically and medically disadvantaged must be recognized" has been removed from paragraph 9 (paragraph 8 in the 2004 version). In countries like India, where the reality is that patients often participate in research to get access to health care (in the absence of accessible and affordable health care, especially in therapeutic areas like oncology), recognizing the economically disadvantaged population as vulnerable is the need of the hour. The ICMRs Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research on Human Participants have clearly identified "persons who are economically or socially disadvantaged" as vulnerable and research in India should respect these guidelines. [7]

The need for having a well-defined research protocol has been described in the earlier versions of the Declaration. However, in this version the Declaration clarifies that each protocol must "indicate how the principles in this Declaration have been addressed". Designing a protocol is usually the responsibility of the sponsor/investigator, and a bland statement is often included that the trial will be conducted "in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki". However, the systems that have been put in place to honor these statements are equally important, as emphasized in the current version.

Additionally, the current version states that a protocol must have "provisions for treating and/or compensating subjects who are harmed as a consequence of participation in the research study." This is a very important inclusion. It is interesting to note that both the Amended Schedule Y [6] and ICMR Guidelines [7] have already described these aspects, and the ICMR in association with the Indian Society for Clinical Research (ISCR) and Forum for Ethics Review Committees in India (FERCI) have published draft guidelines for compensation of participants in case of research-related injuries. [12] In India, awareness and mechanisms of compensation to participants for research-related injuries [13] are inadequate and implementation of the guidelines will assist in honoring the DoH statement.

The aspect of post-trial access is often debated. The 2008 version of the DoH clearly states that "the protocol should describe arrangements for post-study access by study subjects to interventions identified as beneficial in the study or access to other appropriate care or benefits". Although this had found mention in the 2004 "Note of Clarification for Para 30", it has been now incorporated into para 14, emphasizing the need for a priori scheme for ensuring access to the intervention. All stakeholders in clinical research (including ethics committees who should consider this aspect while reviewing the proposal, regulators who should consider whether the intervention will be registered for public access in the country, the sponsor, and the investigator) must have a plan before initiating a trial.

Perhaps the strongest statement for transparency in the conduct of clinical trials comes in the form of Para 19, which requires that "every clinical trial must be registered in a publicly accessible database before recruitment of the first subject." As an extension to this point, the DoH in Para 30 goes on to say that "authors have a duty to make publicly available the results of their research on human subjects and are accountable for the completeness and accuracy of their reports" and that "they should adhere to accepted guidelines for ethical reporting".

Even before the 2008 DoH, the clinical research registration movement was strong, when the ICMJE (International Committee of Medical Journal Editors) [14] issued a statement that, commencing from July 2005, registration of a trial would be mandatory before it could be considered for publication in any of the 12 member journals. In India, the Clinical Trials Registry - India (CTRI), [15] the first such initiative in Asia, was launched by the ICMR's National Institute of Medical Statistics (NIMS) on 20 July, 2007. Any researcher who plans to conduct a drug trial on humans is expected to declare the details of the research in this registry, which is jointly funded by the Department of Science and Technology, WHO, and ICMR.

Although, according to the DoH, clinical trial registration is mandatory before recruitment of the first volunteer in a trial in India and elsewhere too; registration remains largely voluntary at present. Interestingly, out of a total of 67426 clinical trials registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov from161 countries, 901 are Indian trials accounting for hardly 1.3% of all registered trials. Of the 901 trials, there are 59 oncology studies. The CTRI has only 13 oncology trials registered. Obviously, the concept of registration is still nascent and there is a need for all stakeholders including sponsors, Ethics Committees, and investigators to consider implementing the DoH requirement of clinical trial registration. [16] As a step to increase transparency, 12 Indian medical journals (including the Journal of Post Graduate Medicine) have issued a policy that from January 2010, results of a clinical trial will be accepted for publication only if the trial has been registered at CTRI (or any other equivalent registry), if started in or after June 2008. [17]

The issue of obtaining voluntary informed consent from a potential research participant has been mentioned in the ethics guidelines right from the Nuremberg Code. [18] Earlier versions of the DoH have also mentioned that participation in research should be voluntary and informed. The current version, however, goes one step further, making a clear statement about the need to honor the autonomy of the participant. If, as said in Para 22 of the guidelines, the participant is competent to give consent (legally or medically), he/she should not be included without his/her (informed and voluntary) consent. Although not disallowing family or community consultation, the guideline clearly requires that the individual's autonomy be respected. The implementation of this guideline extends not only in the design of the consent forms, but also to the ethics committees, which must review and approve the consent procedure from this point of view, and more importantly, at the time of actual consenting.

Para 24 demands that special attention be given to the fact that the specific information needs of a participant are conveyed in an understandable manner. Although this was not present in the earlier versions, both Schedule Y and ICMR Guidelines have already anticipated this guideline, in that, translations in the vernacular are required to make the information understandable in the local context.

Para 25 is an entirely new and topically relevant feature. It applies to "medical research using identifiable human material or data" and clarifies clearly that "researchers must seek consent for collection, analysis, storage, and/or reuse of data". Whenever a consent waiver is sought, the DoH states that this may be done only after the research is reviewed and approved by a research ethics committee. The ICMR Guidelines have also very succinctly described the conditions when a consent waiver may be given and Ethics Committees and Investigators should honor this guideline in both word and spirit.

The new DoH (Para 31) allows a physician to also be a researcher only if he is convinced of the potential benefit and that participation in the study will not adversely affect the health of the patients who serve as research subjects. This emphasis on the safety of the participant increases the responsibility of the investigator as well as that of the ethics committees.

The issue of placebo controlled trials continues to remain hotly debated, [19] with convincing arguments run by both "sides" of the deliberations. Historically the DoH was against the usage of placebo, but in 2002, in Washington, the usage of placebo was explained in a note of clarification. [1]

The current guideline clearly states that a placebo may be used only where no current proven intervention exists or where there are compelling and scientifically sound methodological reasons. There are two important riders on this statement: one that the patients who receive placebo or no treatment should not be subject to risk of serious or irreversible harm, and two, extreme care must be taken to avoid abuse of this option. The role of the ethics committees in ensuring implementation of these two points needs to be realised. The EC members need adequate expertise to review the justification put forth for the use of placebo and also to oversee that the participant is not at risk.

The last point that is worth noting in the revised DoH is Para 33, which states that "research participants are entitled to be informed about the outcome of the study and to share any benefits that result from it, for example, access to interventions identified as beneficial in the study or to other appropriate care or benefits". We have already discussed that the DoH mentions the need for defining post-trial access in the protocol itself, before initiating the study. Informing participants of research results is possible through the registry. However, this statement does raise ethical problems when it comes to genetic research. [20]

The process of development of guidelines that influence research is as important as the guideline itself. In the case of the DoH, it is evident that as much attention has been paid to the process as to the final product itself. With contributions from many stakeholders, and genuine public debate, the 2008 version is another important contribution from the WMA. It is essential for everyone involved in research on humans, an ethics committee member, researcher, author, editor or reviewer, to read and internalize the principles laid down in the DoH, and this article has highlighted some of the major new aspects included, which may require revision by the Standard Operating Procedures (SOP), for planning, conduct, and reporting of clinical research.

 
 :: References Top

1.World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki, Ethical Principles for Medical Research involving human subjects. Available from: http://www.wma.net/e/policy/b3.htm. [last accessed on 2009 Jan 15].  Back to cited text no. 1    
2.World Medical Association. Available from: http://www.wma.net/e. [last accessed on 2009 Jan 15].  Back to cited text no. 2    
3.World Medical Association member list. Available from: http://www.wma.net/e/members/list.htm. [last accessed on 2009 Jan 15].  Back to cited text no. 3    
4.CIOMS International ethical guidelines for biomedical research involving human subjects. Available from: http://www.cioms.ch/frame_guidelines_nov_2002.htm. [last accessed on 2009 Jan 24].  Back to cited text no. 4    
5.International conference on harmonisation of technical requirements for registration of pharmaceuticals for human use. Available from: http://www.ich.org/LOB/media/MEDIA482.pdf. [last accessed on 2009 Jan 24].  Back to cited text no. 5    
6.Schedule Y (amended version)-CDSCO. Available from: http://cdsco.nic.in/html/Schedule-Y%20 (Amended%20Version-2005) % 20 original.htm [last accessed on 2009 Jan 24].  Back to cited text no. 6    
7.ICMRs Ethical guidelines for biomedical research on human participants 2006. Available from: http://icmr.nic.in/ethical_guidelines.pdf. [last accessed on 2009 Jan 24]  Back to cited text no. 7    
8.World Medical Journal 2008;54:120-4. Available from: http://www.wma.net/e/publications/pdf/wmj20.pdf. [last accessed on 2009 Mar 4].  Back to cited text no. 8    
9.World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki, Ethical Principles for Medical Research involving human subjects. Available from: http://www.laakariliitto.fi/e/ethics/helsinki.html. [last accessed on 2009 Jan 15].  Back to cited text no. 9    
10.A history of celebrex. Available from: http://www.celebrexadvisor.com/celebrex-history. [last accessed on 2009 Jan 15].  Back to cited text no. 10    
11.Europe to Ban Acomplia Weight Loss Drug (Rimonabant). Available from: http://www.naturalnews.com/News000400_Acomplia_weightloss_dangerous_drugs.htm. [last accessed on 2009 Jan 15].  Back to cited text no. 11    
12.Draft for guidelines for compensation to participants for research related injury in India. Available from: http://icmr.nic.in/icmrnews/compensation_guide.pdf. [last accessed on 2009 Jan 24].  Back to cited text no. 12    
13.Thatte UM, Kulkarni-Munshi R, Kalekar SA. Review of Policies for Injuries to Research Participants in India. J Med Ethics 2009 [in press].  Back to cited text no. 13    
14.De Angelis C, Drazen JM, Frizelle FA, Haug C, et al . Is this clinical trial fully registered? A statement from the international committee of medical journal. Haematologica. 2006;91:293-5. Available from: http://www.icmje.org/clin_trialup.htm. [last accessed on 2009 Jan 24].  Back to cited text no. 14    
15.Launch of the Indian Clinical Trial Registry. Available from: http://www.whoindia.org/EN/Section2/Section435_1439.htm. [last accessed on 2009 Jan 24].  Back to cited text no. 15    
16.Tharayan P, Ghersi D. Registering clinical trials in India a scientific and ethical imperative. Natl Med J India 2008;21:31-4.   Back to cited text no. 16    
17.Satyanarayana K, Sharma A, Parikh P, Vijayan VK, Sahu DK, Nayak BK, et al . Statement on publishing clinical trials in Indian biomedical journals. J Postgrad Med 2008;54:78-9.  Back to cited text no. 17  [PUBMED]  Medknow Journal
18.The Nuremberg code 1947. Available from: http://www.cirp.org/library/ethics/nuremberg/. [last accessed on 2009 Jan 15].  Back to cited text no. 18    
19.Franklin GM, Howard B. What makes placebo-controlled trials unethical? Am J Bioeth 2002;2:3-9.  Back to cited text no. 19    
20.Moutel G, Duchange N, Raffi F, Sharara L, Theodorou I, Noλl V, et al. Study group Communication of pharmacogenetic research results to HIV-infected treated patients: Standpoints of professionals and patients. Eur J Hum Genet 2005;13:1055-62.  Back to cited text no. 20    



This article has been cited by
1 Clinical significance of protocadherin-8 (PCDH8) promoter methylation in bladder cancer
Lin, Y.-L., Ma, J.-H., Luo, X.-L., Guan, T.-Y., Li, Z.-G.
Journal of International Medical Research. 2013; 41(1): 48-54
[Pubmed]
2 Downregulation of protocadherin-10 expression correlates with malignant behaviour and poor prognosis in human bladder cancer
Ma, J.-G., He, Z.-K., Ma, J.-H., Li, W.-P., Sun, G.
Journal of International Medical Research. 2013; 41(1): 38-47
[Pubmed]
3 Full-arch vertical reconstruction of an extremely atrophic mandible with "box technique." A novel surgical procedure: A clinical and histologic case report
Menoni, A., Bernardello, F., Spinato, S., Zaffe, D.
Implant Dentistry. 2013; 22(1): 2-7
[Pubmed]
4 Non-bacterial protein expression in periodontal pockets by proteome analysis
Carlo Bertoldi, Elisa Bellei, Chiara Pellacani, Davide Ferrari, Andrea Lucchi, Aurora Cuoghi, Stefania Bergamini, Pierpaolo Cortellini, Aldo Tomasi, Davide Zaffe, Emanuela Monari
Journal of Clinical Periodontology. 2013; : n/a
[VIEW]
5 Proteomic patterns of colonic mucosal tissues delineate Crohnæs colitis and ulcerative colitis
Erin H. Seeley,Mary K. Washington,Richard M. Caprioli,Amosy E. MæKoma
PROTEOMICS - Clinical Applications. 2013; 7(7-8): 541
[Pubmed]
6 Pattern recognition analysis of digital ECGs: Decreased QT measurement error and improved precision compared to semi-automated methods
Olivier Meyer,Georg Ferber,Gerard Greig,Henry H. Holzgrefe
Journal of Electrocardiology. 2013; 46(2): 118
[Pubmed]
7 An Inter-Observer Agreement Study of Autofluorescence Endoscopy in Barrett’s Esophagus Among Expert and Non-Expert Endoscopists
J. Mannath,V. Subramanian,E. Telakis,K. Lau,V. Ramappa,M. Wireko,P. V. Kaye,K. Ragunath
Digestive Diseases and Sciences. 2013; 58(2): 465
[Pubmed]
8 Risk of cardiovascular disease? A qualitative study of risk interpretation among patients with high cholesterol
Pia Kirkegaard,Adrian Edwards,Mette Risør,Janus Thomsen
BMC Family Practice. 2013; 14(1): 137
[Pubmed]
9 Full-Arch Vertical Reconstruction of an Extremely Atrophic Mandible With “Box Technique.” A Novel Surgical Procedure
Andrea Menoni,Fabio Bernardello,Sergio Spinato,Davide Zaffe
Implant Dentistry. 2013; 22(1): 2
[Pubmed]
10 Microradiography and microcomputed tomography comparative analysis in human bone cores harvested after maxillary sinus augmentation: a pilot study
Carlo Maria Soardi,Emanuele Clozza,Gianluca Turco,Matteo Biasotto,Steven P. Engebretson,Hom-Lay Wang,Davide Zaffe
Clinical Oral Implants Research. 2013; : n/a
[Pubmed]
11 An inter-observer agreement study of autofluorescence endoscopy in Barrettæs esophagus among expert and non-expert endoscopists
Mannath, J., Subramanian, V., Telakis, E., Lau, K., Ramappa, V., Wireko, M., Kaye, P.V., Ragunath, K.
Digestive Diseases and Sciences. 2013; 58(2): 465-470
[Pubmed]
12 Impossible, impractical, and non-identifiable? New criteria regarding consent for human tissue research in the declaration of helsinki
Colledge, F., Elger, B.S.
Biopreservation and Biobanking. 2013; 11(3): 149-152
[Pubmed]
13 Ailede Hipertansiyon Öyküsü Olan Çocuklarin Egzersiz Testi Yanitlari | [Exercise test results of children with family history of hypertension]
Yilmaz, M., Pirim, U., Çetin, M., Kiremitçi, S., Coşkun, S.
Turkiye Klinikleri Pediatri. 2013; 22(1): 1-7
[Pubmed]
14 Infección de la herida quirúrgica. Efectividad de los apósitos con polihexametileno biguanida | [Surgical site infections. Effectiveness of polyhexamethylene biguanide wound dressings]
Martín-Trapero, C., Martín-Torrijos, M., Fernández-Conde, L., Torrijos-Torrijos, M., Manzano-Martín, E., Pacheco-del Cerro, J.L., Díez-Valladares, L.I.
Enfermeria Clinica. 2013; 23(2): 56-61
[Pubmed]
15 Pattern recognition analysis of digital ECGs: Decreased QT measurement error and improved precision compared to semi-automated methods
meyer, O., Ferber, G., Greig, G., Holzgrefe, H.H.
Journal of Electrocardiology. 2013; 46(2): 118-125
[Pubmed]
16 Infección de la herida quirúrgica. Efectividad de los apósitos con polihexametileno biguanida
Carlos Martín-Trapero,María Martín-Torrijos,Lourdes Fernández-Conde,Manuela Torrijos-Torrijos,Elena Manzano-Martín,J. Luis Pacheco-del Cerro,Luis I. Díez-Valladares
Enfermería Clínica. 2013; 23(2): 56
[Pubmed]
17 Impossible, Impractical, and Non-Identifiable? New Criteria Regarding Consent for Human Tissue Research in the Declaration of Helsinki
Flora Colledge,Bernice S. Elger
Biopreservation and Biobanking. 2013; 11(3): 149
[Pubmed]
18 Quantitative Comparison of Cone Beam Computed Tomography and Microradiography in the Evaluation of Bone Density after Maxillary Sinus Augmentation: A Preliminary Study
Carlo M. Soardi,Davide Zaffe,Alessandro Motroni,Hom-Lay Wang
Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research. 2012; : n/a
[Pubmed]
19 Recommendations for the return of research results to study participants and guardians: A report from the Childrenæs Oncology Group
Fernandez, C.V., Ruccione, K., Wells, R.J., Long, J.B., Pelletier, W., Hooke, M.C., Pentz, R.D., (...), Joffe, S.
Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2012; 30(36): 4573-4579
[Pubmed]
20 A novel placebo-controlled clinical study design without ethical concerns - The free choice paradigm
Enck, P., Grundy, D., Klosterhalfen, S.
Medical Hypotheses. 2012; 79(6): 880-882
[Pubmed]
21 Resistin involved in endothelial dysfunction among preclinical Tibetan male young adults
Yang, B., Li, M., Chen, B., Li, T.-D.
JRAAS - Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System. 2012; 13(4): 420-425
[Pubmed]
22 Is socket healing conditioned by buccal plate thickness? A clinical and histologic study 4 months after mineralized human bone allografting
Sergio Spinato,Pablo Galindo-Moreno,Davide Zaffe,Fabio Bernardello,Carlo M Soardi
Clinical Oral Implants Research. 2012; : n/a
[Pubmed]
23 A novel placebo-controlled clinical study design without ethical concerns – The free choice paradigm
Paul Enck,David Grundy,Sibylle Klosterhalfen
Medical Hypotheses. 2012; 79(6): 880
[Pubmed]
24 How nurses and physicians judge their own quality of care for deteriorating patients on medical wards
Jeroen Ludikhuize,Dave A. Dongelmans,Susanne M. Smorenburg,Miranda Gans-Langelaar,Evert de Jonge,Sophia E. de Rooij
Critical Care Medicine. 2012; 40(11): 2982
[Pubmed]
25 Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome could be an underestimated variant of “reversible neurological deficits” in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Bin Liu,Xuan Zhang,Feng-chun Zhang,Yuan Yao,Ri-zhi Zhou,Miao-Miao Xin,Li-Qin Wang
BMC Neurology. 2012; 12(1): 152
[Pubmed]
26 Reliability of ultrasonographic measurement of the architecture of the vastus lateralis and gastrocnemius medialis muscles in older adults
Raj, I.S., Bird, S.R., Shield, A.J.
Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging. 2012; 46(1): 42-48
[Pubmed]
27 Factores fisiológicos y sociales asociados a la masa corporal de jóvenes mexicanos con discapacidad intelectual | [Physiological and social factors associated with increments of body mass of Mexican young people with intellectual disabilities]
Ramos-Jiménez, A., Wall-Medrano, A., Hernández-Torres, R.P.
Nutricion Hospitalaria. 2012; 27(6): 2020-2027
[Pubmed]
28 Clinical and prognostic significance of protocadherin-10 (PCDH10) promoter Methylation in bladder cancer
Lin, Y.L., Li, Z.G., He, Z.K., Guan, T.Y., Ma, J.Q.
Journal of International Medical Research. 2012; 40(6): 2117-2123
[Pubmed]
29 How nurses and physicians judge their own quality of care for deteriorating patients on medical wards: Self-assessment of quality of care is suboptimal
Ludikhuize, J., Dongelmans, D.A., Smorenburg, S.M., Gans-Langelaar, M., De Jonge, E., De Rooij, S.E.
Critical Care Medicine. 2012; 40(11): 2982-2986
[Pubmed]
30 What does ærespect for personsæ require? Attitudes and reported practices of genetics researchers in informing research participants about research
Miller, F.A., Hayeems, R.Z., Li, L., Bytautas, J.P.
Journal of Medical Ethics. 2012; 38(1): 48-52
[Pubmed]
31 Ethical Issues in Human Population Biology
Trudy R. Turner
Current Anthropology. 2012; 53(s5): S222
[VIEW]
32 Therapeutic effect of topical ozonated oil on the epithelial healing of palatal wound sites: a planimetrical and cytological study : Effect of ozonated oil on palatal wounds
Punit Vaibhav Patel, Veerendra Kumar, Sheela Kumar, Vidya GD, Amrita Patel
Journal of Investigative and Clinical Dentistry. 2011; : no
[VIEW]
33 Risk factors and outcomes after unplanned extubations on the ICU: A case-control study
De Groot, R.I., Dekkers, O.M., Herold, I.H.F., de Jonge, E., Arbous, M.S.
Critical Care. 2011; 15(1): R 19
[Pubmed]
34 Reliability of ultrasonographic measurement of the architecture of the vastus lateralis and gastrocnemius medialis muscles in older adults : Reliability of ultrasonography
Isaac S. Raj, Stephen R. Bird, Anthony J. Shield
Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging. 2011; : no
[VIEW]
35 Quantitative cytomorphometric analysis of exfoliated normal gingival cells
Patel, P., Kumar, S., Kumar, V., Vidya, G.
Journal of Cytology. 2011; 28(2): 66-72
[Pubmed]
36 Proteomic profiling of mucosal and submucosal colonic tissues yields protein signatures that differentiate the inflammatory colitides
Amosy E. MæKoma, Erin H. Seeley, Mary K. Washington, David A. Schwartz, Roberta L. Muldoon, Alan J. Herline, Paul E. Wise, Richard M. Caprioli
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. 2011; 17(4): 875-883
[Pubmed]
37 Single-session combined photodynamic therapy with verteporfin and intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy for chronic central serous chorioretinopathy: a pilot study at 12-month follow-up
Shiu Ting Mak, Albert Chak-ming Wong
Graefe s Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology. 2011;
[VIEW]
38 The placebo response in clinical trials: more questions than answers
P. Enck, S. Klosterhalfen, K. Weimer, B. Horing, S. Zipfel
Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society B Biological Sciences. 2011; 366(1572): 1889
[VIEW]
39 Placeboresponse : In Studien zum Schmerz und anderen klinischen Bedingungen
K. Weimer, B. Horing, S. Klosterhalfen, P. Enck
Der Schmerz. 2011; 25(3): 325
[VIEW]
40 The Use of Transarterial Chemoembolization in the Treatment of Unresectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Response to the Cochrane Collaboration Review of 2011
Charles E. Ray, Ziv J Haskal, Jean-Francois H. Geschwind, Brian S. Funaki
Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology. 2011;
[VIEW]
41 A proposal for a policy on the ethical care and use of cadavers and their tissues
Thomas H. Champney
Anatomical Sciences Education. 2011; 4(1): 49-52
[Pubmed]
42 Safety and Efficacy of an Ayurvedic Formulation Cystone in Management of Ureteric Calculi: A Prospective Randomized Placebo Controlled Study
N.K. Mohanty,R.L. Nayak,Pralhad S. Patki
American Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology. 2010; 5(2): 58
[Pubmed]
43 Long-term Outcomes of Dismembered Pyeloplasty for Midline-crossing Giant Hydronephrosis Caused by Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction in Children
Minki Baek,Kwanjin Park,Hwang Choi
Urology. 2010; 76(6): 1463
[Pubmed]
44 Safety and efficacy of an Ayurvedic formulation cystone in management of ureteric calculi: A prospective randomized placebo controlled study
Mohanty, N.K., Nayak, R.L., Patki, P.S.
American Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology. 2010; 5(2): 58-64
[Pubmed]
45 Long-term outcomes of dismembered pyeloplasty for midline-crossing giant hydronephrosis caused by ureteropelvic junction obstruction in children
Baek, M., Park, K., Choi, H.
Urology. 2010; 76(6): 1463-1467
[Pubmed]
46 Safety and Efficacy of an Ayurvedic Formulation Cystone in Management of Ureteric Calculi: A Prospective Randomized Placebo Controlled Study
N.K. Mohanty, R.L. Nayak, Pralhad S. Patki
American Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology. 2010; 5(2): 58-64
[Pubmed]
47 Inhibition of vascular ectonucleotidase activities by the pro-drugs ticlopidine and clopidogrel favours platelet aggregation : Biphasic actions of ticlopidine and clopidogrel
Joanna Lecka, Manjit Singh Rana, Jean Sévigny
British Journal of Pharmacology. 2010; 161(5): 1150-1160
[Pubmed]
48 Hope in Huntingtonæs disease: A survey in counseling patients with Huntingtonæs disease, as well as the caregivers
Marcinkowski, J.T., Zielonka, D.
Neural Regeneration Research. 2009; 4(9): 717-720
[Pubmed]
49 The ethics of writing a scientific paper | [Ética no trabalho científico]
De Carvalho, N.S.
Arquivos de Gastroenterologia. 2009; 46(3): 164-166
[Pubmed]



 

Top
Print this article  Email this article
Previous article Next article
Online since 12th February '04
© 2004 - Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Official Publication of the Staff Society of the Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, India
Published by Medknow