Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
 Open access journal indexed with Index Medicus & ISI's SCI  
Users online: 97  
Home | Subscribe | Feedback | Login 
About Latest Articles Back-Issues Article Submission Resources Sections Etcetera Contact
 
  NAVIGATE Here 
  Search
 
 :: Next article
 :: Previous article 
 :: Table of Contents
  
 RESOURCE Links
 ::  Similar in PUBMED
 ::  Search Pubmed for
 ::  Search in Google Scholar for
 ::Related articles
 ::  Article in PDF (274 KB)
 ::  Citation Manager
 ::  Access Statistics
 ::  Reader Comments
 ::  Email Alert *
 ::  Add to My List *
* Registration required (free) 

  IN THIS Article
 ::  Abstract
 ::  Materials and Me...
 ::  Results
 ::  Discussion
 ::  Acknowledgment
 ::  References
 ::  Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed3351    
    Printed74    
    Emailed5    
    PDF Downloaded104    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 3    

Recommend this journal


 


 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2010  |  Volume : 56  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 21-23

Cesarean delivery in preeclampsia and seasonal variation in a tropical rainforest belt


1 Department of Anesthesia, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (Unth), Ituku Ozalla, Enugu, Nigeria
2 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (Unth), Ituku Ozalla, Enugu, Nigeria

Date of Submission23-Mar-2009
Date of Decision22-Jan-2010
Date of Acceptance27-Jan-2010
Date of Web Publication12-Apr-2010

Correspondence Address:
U V Okafor
Department of Anesthesia, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (Unth), Ituku Ozalla, Enugu
Nigeria
Login to access the Email id


DOI: 10.4103/0022-3859.62431

PMID: 20393245

Get Permissions


 :: Abstract 

Background: The pathogenesis of preeclampsia is poorly understood and recent evidence suggests that the incidence varies depending upon the season. Aim: This study was carried out to determine whether there is a seasonal variation in the presentation of preeclamptics undergoing cesarean delivery in a tropical rainforest belt. Setting: A university teaching hospital. Study Design: Retrospective. Materials and Methods: The hospital records of consecutive patients (July 1996-June 2006) with preeclampsia, who underwent cesarean delivery in a tertiary care centre, were reviewed. Data collected included patient demographics, total number of deliveries, number of cesarean deliveries, and number of preeclampsia patients and time of presentation for cesarean section. Approval of the local ethical committee was obtained. Statistical Analysis: The EPI info software program was used for statistical analysis. Results: A total of 6798 deliveries were recorded during the study period resulting in 6485 live births. There were 1579 cesarean deliveries during the period. Of these, 196 patients had toxemia of pregnancy (166 with preeclampsia and 30 with eclampsia). One hundred and forty-one patients (9% of cesarean deliveries) had cesarean delivery during the rainy season and 55 (3.5%) during the dry season (P<0.05). Amongst preeclampsia patients, 115 presented (7%) during the rainy season and 51 (3.2%) during the dry season (P<0.05). In the eclampsia group, 26 (1.65% of cesarean sections) presented during the rainy season and four (0.25%) during the dry season (P<0.05). Conclusions: There was a seasonal variation in the cesarean delivery required for preeclampsia/eclampsia patients. This may help in counseling women on when to plan their pregnancy in order to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with this apparent seasonal disease.


Keywords: Cesarean delivery, eclampsia, preeclampsia, rainy and dry seasons, tropical climate


How to cite this article:
Okafor U V, Ezegwui H U. Cesarean delivery in preeclampsia and seasonal variation in a tropical rainforest belt. J Postgrad Med 2010;56:21-3

How to cite this URL:
Okafor U V, Ezegwui H U. Cesarean delivery in preeclampsia and seasonal variation in a tropical rainforest belt. J Postgrad Med [serial online] 2010 [cited 2014 Nov 27];56:21-3. Available from: http://www.jpgmonline.com/text.asp?2010/56/1/21/62431


Preeclampsia, a multisystem disorder unique to human pregnancy is defined as the association of pregnancy-induced hypertension with proteinuria of greater than or equal to 300 mg/24 h after 20 weeks of gestation. [1] It is a severe complication of pregnancy leading to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality and has been reported to complicate 4-7% of all pregnancies, [1],[2] Major maternal complications of preeclampsia include placental abruption; HELLP syndrome (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets) and eclampsia which can seriously endanger maternal wellbeing. [1],[3]

The pathogenesis of preeclampsia is poorly understood. [4] The role of seasonal variation in its etiology is one of the factors being considered. [5],[6],[7],[8]

Nigeria has two distinct climatic zones: the equatorial maritime air mass influences the climate along the coast, which is characterized by high humidity and rainfall. Further north, the tropical continental air mass brings dry dusty winds (harmattan) from the Sahara.

A spate of recent literature highlights a possible relationship between preeclampsia and the seasons. [9],[10],[11] This retrospective survey seeks to establish whether that pattern exists for parturients with preeclampsia presenting for cesarean delivery in Enugu, Southern Nigeria.


 :: Materials and Methods Top


This retrospective review of preeclampsia and eclampsia patients who underwent cesarean section during the rainy and dry seasons, from July 1996 to June 2006 was carried out at our centre in southeast Nigeria. In our centre, the obstetric theatre and labor ward records include patients' demographics, dates and time, parity, gestational age, indications for surgery, apgar score (one and five min scores), birth weight (including placenta weight), incision-to-delivery time, anesthetic technique, names of anesthetists/obstetricians/scrub nurses, major intraoperative complications and feto-maternal outcome. This includes transfer of mothers and babies to special care units. This helps in audits where some patient folders may be unavailable. The obstetric theatre records were reviewed to identify preeclampsia/eclampsia patients who underwent cesarean section during the study period. The hospital records of these patients were examined for demographics, dates of cesarean delivery, obstetric and anesthetic records to determine whether there was a statistically significant difference in the numbers presenting during the rainy and dry seasons.

In our centre, a parturient has mild preeclampsia when she presents with the following: a blood pressure of 140/90 mmHg on two occasions 6 h or more apart, or a rise of 30 mmHg systolic or 15 mmHg diastolic from mid-trimester values; proteinuria above (+) on two consecutive urine specimens and significant non-dependent edema. A patient is labeled to have severe preeclampsia if the blood pressure is persistently above 160/110 mmHg and proteinuria above 5g/24 h (+++) and if patient has symptoms of headache, blurring of vision, epigastric pain and oliguria.The delivery services are manned by 50 registrars and senior registrars under the supervision of six consultant anesthetists, 14 consultant obstetricians and 15 consultant pediatricians. These are rostered in units to cover the delivery suite. A senior registrar should have had at least 24 months of postgraduate training including a pass in the part on fellowship examination of a postgraduate college (Nigerian or West African postgraduate medical colleges or equivalent). They are also supposed to be well-versed in the management of preeclampsia/eclampsia. There are also trained midwives covering the delivery suite in rotation.

The rainy season runs from April (average rainfall 147 mm) to October with an average rainfall of 211 mm. The dry season extends from November to March (average rainfall 35-81 mm). The hospital records of these patients were examined for demographics, dates of cesarean delivery, obstetric and anesthetic records to determine whether there was a statistically significant difference in the numbers presenting during the rainy and dry seasons.

The code and indexing system was also used to determine the number of patients with preeclampsia, who presented to the hospital during the study period. The EPI info software program was used for statistical analysis. This was based on a power of 80%, a confidence limit of 95%, prevalence of preeclampsia/eclampsia of 4% in this study. Approval of the local ethical committee was obtained.


 :: Results Top


During the study period, 6798 deliveries were conducted and 6485 live births were delivered. There were a total of 1579 cesarean deliveries (CD). Of these, 196 were carried out in those with toxemia of pregnancy (166 patients had preeclampsia, while 30 had eclampsia). One hundred and forty-one of these patients (9% of cesarean deliveries) had cesarean delivery during the rainy season and 55 patients had cesarean section (3.5% of cesarean deliveries) during the dry season (P<0.05). [Table 1] shows the meteorological data for Enugu, southeast Nigeria and [Table 2] shows the monthly presentation of the patients during the seasons.

Amongst patients with preeclampsia, 115 had CD (7% of cesarean deliveries) during the rainy season, and 51 (3.2%) during the dry season (P<0.05). Among the eclamptics, 26 (1.65% of CD) presented during the rainy season and four (0.25% of CD) during the dry season (P<0.05). On the whole, 196 out of a total of 285 preeclamptics (P<0.05) had abdominal delivery in the hospital during the study period with a 68% cesarean section rate.


 :: Discussion Top


In this study, a systemic seasonal variability in the need for cesarean delivery for preeclamptics was found with a peak during the rainy season and a minimum during the dry season. Literature on the seasonal variation in the incidence of preeclampsia/eclampsia is inconclusive. [12],[13],[14],[15],[16] However, recent literature seems to be leaning to a seasonal variation. [9],[10],[11] Since the etiological factors in preeclampsia are unclear, an understanding of seasonal variation in the presentation of preeclampsia may help in finding out the factors that may be involved in triggering these events. It will also help in counseling women on when to plan their pregnancy to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with the seasonal disease.

In a study from Ghana, with almost the same climatic conditions as southern Nigeria, more cases of eclampsia were noted during the rainy season. [17] In Kuwait, the incidence of preeclampsia was highest in the months with high humidity and low temperature. [16] In the Scandinavian country of Sweden, a study of 10,666 women showed that there was a reduced incidence of preeclampsia in summer compared with the winter period. [13] A recent study from South Africa revealed that preeclampsia occurred more frequently in winter, similar to another study from Norway. [9] Though a few studies from the United States of America [12],[18] concluded that the incidence of preeclampsia/eclampsia was not influenced by climatic factors even in periods of high humidity, a majority of the studies agree that preeclampsia/eclampsia occurs more in winter. [4],[8],[9],[10],[16],[17],[19],[20] A study in the tropical climate of Mumbai, India, showed that while the incidence of eclampsia was significantly higher in the rainy season, the same effect was not seen in preeclampsia, there just being a marginal increase. [10]

Drawing conclusions from this study may not be fortuitous considering that the study population is statistically significant if random sampling of the total hospital preeclamptic population (285) was used (P<0.05). It is also important to know the incidence of preeclamptics having cesarean delivery during different seasons as that may give a clue as to the severity of illness during the rainy and dry seasons. This is because the most expedient mode of delivery in severe preeclampsia in most developing countries may be a cesarean section. A previous study in the savannah belt region of North Central Nigeria showed increased admission of eclamptics to the intensive care unit during the rainy season. [21]

Interestingly, there were no seasonal variations in other indications for cesarean delivery, even in patients with placenta praevia and abruptio placenta. While controversies may continue as to the relationship between preeclampsia and the seasons, it would be interesting to see other studies on the number of preeclamptics requiring abdominal delivery during different seasons from other tropical rainforest belts.


 :: Acknowledgment Top


We thank the records department of UNTH, Enugu for their help in this study, and Miss M Nwodo for graciously typing the manuscript.

 
 :: References Top

1.Winer N, Tsasaris V. Latest development management and treatment of pre-eclampsia J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod 2008;37:5-15.  Back to cited text no. 1      
2.Landau R, Irion O. Recent data on the physiopathology of pre-eclampsia and recommendation for treatment. Rev Med Suisse 2005;290:292-5.  Back to cited text no. 2      
3.Gul A, Cebeci A, Aslan H, Polat I, Ozdemir A, Ceylan Y. Perinatal outcome in severe pre eclampsia/eclampsia with and without HELLP syndrome. Gynecol Obstet Invest 2005;59:113-9.  Back to cited text no. 3      
4.Magnus P, Eskild A. Seasonal variation in the occurrence of pre-eclampsia. BJOG 2001;108:1116-9.  Back to cited text no. 4      
5.Tam WH, Sahata DS, Lau TK, Li CY, Fung TY. Seasonal variation in pre-eclamptic rate and its association with the ambient temperature and humidity in early pregnancy. Gynecol Obstet Invest 2008;66:22-6.  Back to cited text no. 5      
6.Yackerson NS, Piura B, Friger M. The influence of weather state on the incidence of pre-eclampsia and placental abruption in semi-arid areas. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol 2007;34:27-30.  Back to cited text no. 6      
7.Magann EF, Perry KG Jr, Morrison JC, Martin JN. Climatic factors and pre-eclampsia - related hypertensive disorders of pregnancy Am J Obstet Gynecol 1995;172:204-5.  Back to cited text no. 7      
8.Agobe JT, Good W, Hancock KW. Meteorological relations of eclampsia in Lagos, Nigeria. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1981;88:706-10.  Back to cited text no. 8      
9.Immink A, Scherjon S, Wolterbeek R, Steyn DW. Seasonal influence on the admittance of pre-eclampsia patients in Tygerbery Hospital. Acta Obstet Gynaecol Scand 2008;87:36-42.  Back to cited text no. 9      
10.Subramaniam V. Seasonal variation in the incidence of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia in tropical climate conditions. BMC Women's Health 2007;7:18.  Back to cited text no. 10      
11.Anya SE. Seasonal variation in the variation and causes of death in the Gambia: Malaria appears to be an important factor. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2004;70:510-3.  Back to cited text no. 11      
12.Alderman BW, Boyko EJ, Loy GL, Jones RH, Keane EM, Daling JR. Weather and the occurrence of eclampsia. Int J Epidemiol 1988;17:582-8.  Back to cited text no. 12      
13.Ros HS, Cnattingius S, Lipworth L. Comparison of risk factors for pre-eclampsia and gestational hypertension in a population based control study. Am J Epidemiol 1998;147:1062-70.  Back to cited text no. 13      
14.Phillips JK, Bernstein IM, Mongeon JA, Badger GJ. Seasonal variation in pre-eclampsia based on timing of conception. Obstet Gynecol 2004;104:1015-20.  Back to cited text no. 14      
15.Wacker J, Schulz M, Fruhauf J, Chiwora FM, Solomayer E, Bastert E. Seasonal change in the incidence of pre-eclampsia in Zimbabwe. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1998;77:712-6.  Back to cited text no. 15      
16.Makhseed M, Musini VM, Ahmed MA, Monem RA. Influence of seasonal variation on pregnancy-induced Hypertension and/or pre-eclampsia. Aust NZ Obstet Gynaecol 1999;39:166-9.  Back to cited text no. 16      
17.Obed SA, Wilson JB, Elkins TE. Eclampsia: 134 consecutive cases. Int J Gynecol Obstet 1994;45:97-103.  Back to cited text no. 17      
18.Griswold DM, Cavanagh D. Eclampsia and the weather. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1965;91:847-51.  Back to cited text no. 18      
19.Bider D, Sivan E, Seidman DS, Dulitzky M, Mashiach S, Serr D, et al. Metrological factors in hypertensive disorders, vaginal bleeding and premature rupture of membranes during pregnancy. Gynecol Obstet Invest 1991;32:88-90.  Back to cited text no. 19      
20.Bergstrom S, Povey G, Songane F, Ching C. Seasonal incidence of eclampsia and its relationship to meteorological data in Mozambique. J Perinat Med 1992;20:153-8.   Back to cited text no. 20      
21.Okafor UV, Efetie ER, Ekumankama O. Eclampsia and seasonal variation in the tropics: A study in the tropics. Pan African Medical Journal 2009;2:7.  Back to cited text no. 21      



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2]

This article has been cited by
1 Associations of Meteorology with Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes: A Systematic Review of Preeclampsia, Preterm Birth and Birth Weight
Alyssa Beltran,Jun Wu,Olivier Laurent
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 11(1): 91
[Pubmed]
2 Preeclampsia/eclampsia: An insight into the dilemma of treatment by the anesthesiologist
Khan, Z.H.
Acta Medica Iranica. 2011; 49(9): 564-574
[Pubmed]
3 Effects of meteorological conditions on pregnancy outcome: Literature review [Conséquences des conditions météorologiques sur læissue de la grossesse: Revue de la littérature]
Laaidi, M. and Boumendil, A. and Tran, T.-C. and Kaba, H. and Rozenberg, P. and Aegerter, P.
Environnement, Risques et Sante. 2011; 10(2): 128-141
[Pubmed]



 

Top
Print this article  Email this article
Previous article Next article
Online since 12th February '04
© 2004 - Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Official Publication of the Staff Society of the Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, India
Published by Medknow