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Year : 2013  |  Volume : 59  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 284-288

Genetic instability in urinary bladder cancer: An evolving hallmark


1 School of Biotechnology, Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
2 Department of Biotechnology, Sapthagiri College of Engineering, Bangalore, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
N Wadhwa
School of Biotechnology, Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya, Bhopal,, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0022-3859.123156

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Bladder cancer is a major health-care concern. A successful treatment of bladder cancer depends on its early diagnosis at the initial stage. Genetic instability is an essential early step toward the development of bladder cancer. This instability is found more often at the chromosomal level than at the nucleotide level. Microsatellite and chromosomal instability markers can be used as a prognostic marker for screening bladder cancer. Bladder cancer can be distinguished in two different categories according to genetic instability: Cancers with chromosomal level instability and cancers with nucleotide level instability. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) mismatch repair (MMR) system and its correlation with other biologic pathway, both are essential to understand the basic mechanisms of cancer development. Microsatellite instability occurs due to defects in DNA MMR genes, including human mutL homolog 1 and human mutL homolog 2. Chromosomal alterations including deletions on chromosome 3, 8, 9, 11, 13, 17 have been detected in bladder cancer. In the current review, the most recent literature of genetic instability in urinary bladder cancer has been summarized.






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Online since 12th February '04
2004 - Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Official Publication of the Staff Society of the Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, India
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow