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 ::  Abstract
 ::  Background and R...
 :: Methods
 :: Results
 :: Discussion
 ::  References
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BRIEF REPORT
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 62  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 178-181

Maternal and socio-demographic determinants of low birth weight (LBW): A community-based study in a rural block of Assam


1 Department of Community Medicine, North Eastern Indira Gandhi Regional Institute of Health and Medical Sciences (NEIGRIHMS), Shillong, Meghalaya, India
2 Department of Community Hamdard Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, New Delhi, India

Date of Submission19-May-2015
Date of Decision23-May-2015
Date of Acceptance24-Sep-2015
Date of Web Publication18-Jul-2016

Correspondence Address:
M Borah
Medicine, Department of Community Medicine, North Eastern Indira Gandhi Regional Institute of Health and Medical Sciences (NEIGRIHMS), Shillong, Meghalaya
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0022-3859.184275

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 :: Abstract 

Background and Rationale: Low birth weight (LBW) leads to high neonatal and infant deaths. There is also high prevalence of childhood morbidities and mortalities that are consequences of LBW. Objectives: To find out the prevalence of LBW babies among the study population and to find out the effect of certain maternal and socio-demographic characteristics on birth weight. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in a rural block of Assam. Cluster sampling was done to choose 30 villages and 15 infants were selected randomly from each village to get a sample size of 450. Results: Prevalence of LBW was found to be 21.8%. Percentage of LBW babies was more among the teenage mothers (36%) and primipara mothers (27%). Maternal anemia [odds ratio (OR) 1.93; confidence interval (CI) 1.3-2.9], short interpregnancy interval (OR 3.93; CI 2.16-7.13), and teenage pregnancy (OR 3.93; CI 2.16-6.45) were found to be the independent risk factors associated with LBW of the babies. Discussion: The study findings indicated the high prevalence of LBW babies in rural areas of Assam and illiterate teenage mothers, grand multipara, anemic mothers, and short interpregnancy intervals were the important risk factors for LBW.


Keywords: Anemia, literacy, low birth weight (LBW), teenage pregnancy


How to cite this article:
Borah M, Agarwalla R. Maternal and socio-demographic determinants of low birth weight (LBW): A community-based study in a rural block of Assam. J Postgrad Med 2016;62:178-81

How to cite this URL:
Borah M, Agarwalla R. Maternal and socio-demographic determinants of low birth weight (LBW): A community-based study in a rural block of Assam. J Postgrad Med [serial online] 2016 [cited 2019 Aug 24];62:178-81. Available from: http://www.jpgmonline.com/text.asp?2016/62/3/178/184275



 :: Background and Rationale Top


Assam has the highest maternal death rate in India, [1] and has a high prevalence of both anemia and malnutrition, [2] which are directly reflected in birth weight of new born. The annual health survey (2012-2013) revealed that 23.3% of newborns in Assam are low birth weight (LBW). [3] There is insufficient data on factors that influence LBW in rural areas. Therefore, the present study was undertaken in a rural block of Assam with the objectives of finding out the prevalence of LBW babies among the study population and to find out the effect of selected maternal and socio-demographic characteristics on birth weight.


 :: Methods Top


The present study was a cross-sectional study conducted in Boko Bangaon Developmental Block area of Kamrup district Assam. This block is situated around 80 km west of Guwahati city and the block is mainly inhabited by tribal population - Rabha, Bodo-Kachari, and Garo tribes. The study population were children under 1 year of age and their mothers. The study period was from October 2012 to March 2013.

Sample size and sampling technique

The sample size was calculated as 402 considering prevalence of LBW as 27.2% [4] and 20% relative error and design effect of 1.5 at 95% confidence interval (CI) (n = 4pq/L 2 ). Taking 10% nonrespondents, the sample size was rounded up as 450. To get that sample, 30 villages were selected through cluster random sampling. From each cluster, 15 infants were selected randomly.

Inclusion criteria

All singleton infants, the infants whose parents gave written informed consent to be part of the study, and the infants whose parents who were permanent residents of the area.

Exclusion criteria

The infants whose birth weights were not known, the infants whose parents were not permanent residents of the area, the infants whose parents were not giving written informed consent.

Ethics

The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Gauhati Medical College and written, informed consent was obtained from all participants before any study related procedure was carried out.

[TAG:2]Results [/TAG:2]

Demographics

A total of 450 infants were studied and 98/450 [21.8%] were found to be Low birth weight [LBW]. Of the 98, 45 were male and 53 were females. On analysis of socio-demographic variables, it was found that total 128 babies were born among the teenage mothers and among them numbers of LBW babies were more 46(36%). Among illiterate mothers 20 (22.2%) numbers of LBW babies were seen. Numbers of LBW babies found in joint families were 64 (20.6%) and 34 (24.3%) in nuclear families. Maximum LBW babies belonged to upper lower class (class IV) that is 43 (25.2%). In Muslim families 21 (26.2%) numbers of LBW babies were found. Chi-square test revealed statistically significant association between LBW and teenage pregnancy (P < 0.001), illiteracy (P < 0.02), and religion (P < 0.003) [Table 1].
Table 1: Distribution of study population according to socio-demographic variables

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Analysis of maternal factors [Table 2]A and B revealed that 26.9% of LBW babies are born of primipara mothers. There was also a high LBW percentage among the fourth or more para (30.4%). A very high LBW percentage of 44.5% was seen when interpregnancy interval was less than 18 months. LBW percentage was found to be higher among those women who had either no antenatal care (ANC) visits (42.8%) or less than 4 ANC visits (22.6%). Percentage of LBW was maximum (42.8%) in mothers who had not consumed any iron and folic acid tablets during pregnancy. The present study found maximum percentage of LBW babies (40%) among those women who had severe anemia. Among the mothers who had height of less than 145 cm, 28.6% had LBW babies. Those mothers who had previous history of abortions and stillbirth were also found to have high percentage of LBW babies (28%). Among the mothers who had gestational weight gain of less than 5 kg, 28.3% had LBW babies. LBW was significantly associated with the narrow interpregnancy interval (P < 0.02) and anemia during pregnancy (P < 0.001).
Table 2:

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On multiple logistic analysis of determinants of LBW babies, it was found that maternal anemia [odds ratio (OR) 1.93; CI 1.3-2.9], short interpregnancy interval (OR 3.93; CI 2.16-7.13), and teenage pregnancy (OR 3.93; CI 2.16-6.45) were the independent risk factors associated with LBW [Table 3].
Table 3: Logistic regression analysis of LBW and its determinants

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 :: Discussion Top


The incidence of LBW in the present study was found to be 21.8%, which was slightly less than the national average of rural India (23%). [2] Still the high incidence of LBW in the study area could be a reflection of inadequate health care services in rural areas and poor maternal health conditions.

Present study found a significant association between the birth weight and teenage pregnancy. It may be due to the fact that teenage mothers are both physically and mentally less capable for bearing the burden of pregnancy. Banerjee et al. also found that the incidence of LBW was significantly higher among the teenage mothers. [5]

A significant association was found between mother's education status and birth weight of babies in the present study. Similarly, Kader et al. also reported that the percentage of LBW babies among illiterate mothers was high. [6] Our study found a statistically significant association between birth weight of babies and the religion. Similarly, Kaushal et al. also found higher percentage of LBW babies among Muslim mothers. [7]

Most of the mothers of LBW babies were found to be anemic during the antenatal period. Similarly, Mumbare et al. observed that maternal anemia is associated with delivery of a LBW infant. [8] Our study also found higher percentage of LBW babies among mothers who did not have adequate ANC checkups. Similar findings were also observed by Kader et al. [6]

The study found that short interpregnancy interval was significantly associated with LBW of the baby. Metgud et al. also had similar findings. [9]

The study found that among those mothers who had less weight gain during pregnancy, mothers with previous history of abortion, and mothers of short stature, the percentage of LBW was more. Study by Phaneendra Rao et al. also found that maternal height and weight gain during pregnancy were associated with birth weight. [10] Brown et al. also found that previous abortion is a significant risk factor for LBW. [11] Universal registration of pregnant women and good-quality ante natal care are both vital. Risk factors identified in the study can be used taken up and addressed by policy makers.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.[12]

 
 :: References Top

1.
Registrar General of India. Sample Registration System Special Bulletin on Maternal Mortality 2010-2012. Available from: . [Last accessed on 2015 May 18].  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
International Institute of Population Science. National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) 2005-06: India: Volume 1. Mumbai: International Institute of population Science and Macro International; 2007. p. 226, 273, 290.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Registrar General and Census Commissioner. Annual Health Survey 2012-13, Fact Sheet. New Delhi: Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India; 2013. p. 89-90.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Registrar General and Census Commissioner. Annual Health Survey 2010-11. New Delhi: Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India; 2011. p. 95-6.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Banerjee B, Pandey GK, Dutt D, Sengupta B, Mondal M, Deb S. Teenage pregnancy: A socially inflicted health hazard. Indian J Community Med 2009;34:227-31.  Back to cited text no. 5
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
6.
Kader M, Perera NK. Socio-economic and nutritional determinants of low birth weight in India. N Am J Med Sci 2014;6:302-8.   Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Kaushal SK, Misra SK, Gupta SC, Singh R. A study of maternal factors and birth weight in a border District of Uttar Pradesh: A hospital based study. Indian J Community Health 2012; 24:86-90.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Mumbare SS, Maindarkar G, Darade R, Yenge S, Tolani MK, Patole K. Maternal risk factors associated with term low birth weight neonates: A matched-pair case control study. Indian Pediatr 2012;49:25-28.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Metgud CS, Naik VA, Mallapur MD. Factors affecting birth weight of a newborn-a community based study in rural Karnataka, India. PLoS One 2012;7:e40040.   Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Rao PR, Prakash KP, Nair SN. Influence of pre-pregnancy weight, maternal height and weight gain during pregnancy on birth weight. Bahrain Med Bull 2001;23:22-6.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Brown JS Jr, Adera T, Masho SW. Previous abortion and the risk of low birth weight and preterm births. J Epidemiol Community Health 2008;62:16-22.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Bhalwar R. Text Book of Public Health and Community Medicine. 1 st ed. Pune: Department of Community Medicine, Armed Forces Medical College (AFMC); 2009. p. 613.  Back to cited text no. 12
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

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