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  :: Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
April-June 2019
Volume 65 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 67-128

Online since Friday, April 26, 2019

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EDITORIAL  

Generic drugs – The Indian scenario p. 67
SS Joshi, YC Shetty, S Karande
DOI:10.4103/jpgm.JPGM_420_18  PMID:31036775
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EDITORIAL COMMENTARIES Top

Interpreting the meta-analysis of efficacy of vitamin D supplementation in major depression p. 70
L Jeyaseelan
DOI:10.4103/jpgm.JPGM_267_18  PMID:31036776
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Transoral thyroidectomy- Breaking new grounds?? p. 72
PS Pai
DOI:10.4103/jpgm.JPGM_91_19  PMID:31036777
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Efficacy of vitamin D supplementation in major depression: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials Highly accessed article p. 74
F Vellekkatt, V Menon
DOI:10.4103/jpgm.JPGM_571_17  PMID:29943744
Background: There is a need to develop and periodically evaluate new treatment strategies in major depression due to the high burden of nonresponse and inadequate response to antidepressants. Aim: We aimed to assess the effect of vitamin D supplementation on depression symptom scores among individuals with clinically diagnosed major depression. Materials and Methods: Electronic search of databases was carried out for published randomized controlled trials in English language, peer-reviewed journals from inception till August 2017. Outcome measure used for effect size calculation was depression symptom scores. Effect sizes for the trials were computed using standardized mean difference (Cohen's d), and I2 test was used to assess sample heterogeneity. Pooled mean effect sizes were derived using both fixed and random-effects model. Critical appraisal of studies was done using the Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool. Results: A total of four trials involving 948 participants were included in the study. In three trials, the intervention group received oral vitamin D supplementation whereas in one parenteral vitamin D was given. Pooled mean effect size for vitamin D supplementation on depressive symptom ratings in major depression was 0.58 (95% confidence interval, 0.45–0.72). The I2 value for heterogeneity was 0 suggesting low heterogeneity among studies. Egger plot intercept indicated minimal publication bias. Conclusion: Vitamin D supplementation favorably impacted depression ratings in major depression with a moderate effect size. These findings must be considered tentative owing to the limited number of trials available and inherent methodological bias noted in few of them.
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Transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy using vestibular approach: A single center experience p. 81
SA Rege, M Janesh, S Surpam, V Shivane, A Arora, A Singh
DOI:10.4103/jpgm.JPGM_117_18  PMID:30860079
Background: Thyroid Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES) or transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy using vestibular approach is a recent advance embraced by the surgical community because of its potential for a scar-free thyroidectomy. In this article, we present our initial experience with this technique. Materials and Methods: We used a three-port technique through the oral vestibule, one 10 mm port for the laparoscope and two additional 5 mm ports for the endoscopic instruments required. The carbon dioxide insufflation pressure was set at 12 mm of Hg. Anterior cervical subplatysmal space was created from the oral vestibule down to the sternal notch, and the thyroidectomy was done using conventional laparoscopic instruments and a harmonic scalpel. Results: From May 2016 to December 2017, we have performed ten such procedures in the Department of General Surgery in our hospital, which is a tertiary referral center. Six patients had solitary thyroid nodules, for which a hemi-thyroidectomy was done. Four patients had multi-nodular goiter and total thyroidectomy or near-total thyroidectomy was done. The preoperative fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) was suggestive of Bethesda class 2 lesions in all the patients with multinodular goiter and in five of the six patients with solitary nodular goiter. Only one patient with solitary nodular goiter had a Bethesda class 3 lesion on FNAC. The final histopathological report of the specimen was benign, either colloid goiter, or degenerative nodule in all cases of multinodular goiter and in four cases of solitary thyroid nodule. In one Bethesda class 2 solitary nodule, the histopathological report was suggestive of follicular carcinoma; in the Bethesda class 3 solitary nodule, the histopathological report was suggestive of follicular variant of papillary carcinoma. No complication such as temporary or permanent vocal cord paralysis, hypoparathyroidism, subcutaneous emphysema, pneumomediastinum, tracheal injury, esophageal injury, mental nerve palsy, or surgical site infection was found postoperatively. However, two patients developed small hematomas in the midline. Conclusion: Transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy is a safe, feasible, and minimally invasive technique with excellent cosmetic results.
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Prevalence and correlates of cyberchondria among professionals working in the information technology sector in Chennai, India: A cross-sectional study p. 87
S Makarla, V Gopichandran, D Tondare
DOI:10.4103/jpgm.JPGM_293_18  PMID:31036778
Background: Cyberchondria is the excessive searching of online health information that leads to anxiety and distress. There is scarce information about its prevalence in low and middle-income country settings. Objectives: The objective of the study was to assess the prevalence and factors influencing cyberchondria among employees working in the information technology sector in India. Methods: An emailed questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey was conducted among 205 employees working in various information technology firms in and around Chennai. The data were analyzed using nonhierarchical k-means cluster analysis to group participants with and without cyberchondria on its four subdomains. The association of cyberchondria with general mental health as measured by the General Health Questionnaire 12 was studied using independent sample t-test. Logistic regression analysis was performed to study the association between general mental health and cyberchondria after adjusting for sociodemographic covariates. Results: The prevalence of cyberchondria was 55.6%. The dominant pattern was excessiveness of online searching, requirement of reassurance followed by distress due to health anxiety, and compulsivity. Cyberchondria was negatively associated with general mental health (adj. OR 0.923; 95% CI 0.882–0.967) after adjusting for age, sex, education, and years of service. Conclusions: Cyberchondria is an emerging public mental health problem in India. Since it is associated with poor mental health, measures need to be adopted to evaluate, prevent, and treat it at the population level.
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Comparison of primary arthrodesis versus open reduction with internal fixation for Lisfranc injuries: Systematic review and meta-analysis p. 93
PF Han, ZL Zhang, CL Chen, YC Han, XC Wei, PC Li
DOI:10.4103/jpgm.JPGM_414_18  PMID:31036779
Objective: Multiple studies have compared primary arthrodesis versus open reduction with internal fixation (ORIF) for surgical treatment of fractures of the Lisfranc joint, but their results have been inconsistent. Therefore, the present systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to compare the clinical efficacy of arthrodesis versus ORIF for the treatment of Lisfranc injuries. Methods: Through searching the Embase, PubMed, PMC, CINAHL, PQDT, and Cochrane Library databases (from July 1998 to July 2018), we identified five case-controlled trials and two randomized controlled trials that compared the clinical efficacy of primary arthrodesis and ORIF for treating Lisfranc injuries. The extracted data were analyzed using Review manager 5.3 software. Results: Through comparisons of data for primary arthrodesis and ORIF groups, we found no significant differences in the anatomic reduction rate, revision surgery rate, and total rate of complications between the different treatment approaches. However, arthrodesis was associated with a significantly better American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score, return to duty rate, and visual analog scale score with a lower incidence of hardware removal compared with ORIF. Conclusions: For the treatment for Lisfranc injuries, primary arthrodesis was superior to ORIF based on a higher AOFAS score, better return to duty rate, lower postoperative pain, and lower requirement for internal fixation removal. Further evidence from future randomized controlled trials with higher quality and larger sample sizes is needed to confirm these findings.
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Predictors of response to pulmonary rehabilitation in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients: A prospective cohort study p. 101
S Ragaselvi, AK Janmeja, D Aggarwal, A Sidana, P Sood
DOI:10.4103/jpgm.JPGM_433_18  PMID:31036780
Context: Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) has become a standard of care in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, a significant proportion of the patients do not show benefit after the PR program. Aims: The study was planned to find different patient- and/or disease-related factors that may predict response to PR in stable COPD. Subjects and Methods: A total of 102 stable COPD patients were prospectively enrolled. Baseline evaluation and investigations, including spirometry, arterial blood gas analysis, and bone mineral density assessment, were done. Thereafter, all patients underwent an 8-week comprehensive outpatient PR program that consisted of exercise training, education, nutritional, and psychological counseling. The response to PR was dichotomously (yes/no) defined by the combined improvement in exercise tolerance (6-min walk distance [6MWD] +54 m) and quality of life (St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire [SGRQ] score - 4 points) measured before and after the program. Thereafter, different predefined factors were analyzed for their possible association with the PR response. Results: A total of 80 patients (78.4%) completed the PR program and were subjected for analysis. Out of them, 42 (52.5%) showed improvement in both 6MWD and SGRQ score (46 in 6MWD and 54 in SGRQ score). After application of multivariate logistic regression analysis, forced expiratory volume in 1 s <50% predicted (odds ratio [OR]: 2.9; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1–8.3; P = 0.04) and osteoporosis (OR: 0.26; 95% CI: 0.13–0.53; P < 0.001) were found as independent factors predicting PR efficacy. Conclusions: Poor baseline lung function predicts a short-term improvement in exercise capacity and quality of life in COPD patients, whereas osteoporosis is a negative predictor of PR response. Active search for these factors may help in better patient selection, thus leading to improved outcome after PR.
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VIEW POINT Top

Central institutional ethics committee needed to facilitate timely review of multicenter clinical trials p. 107
BS Desai, AS Dixit, VS Gota
DOI:10.4103/jpgm.JPGM_428_18  PMID:30924443
A multicenter trial in India undergoes review by Institutional Ethics Committees (IECs) of all participating institutions. The failure to obtain approval even from a single institution's IEC creates a situation of inequitable access to clinical trials. The dichotomy in decisions of different IECs is attributed to lack of standardization and accountability in their functioning. The registration of IECs with Central Drugs Standard Control Organization notwithstanding, the current model of IEC review has failed to ensure uniformity in IEC decisions in multicenter trials. Alternative models that allow central review of multicenter clinical trials should be explored.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Isolated open comminuted fracture of the first rib p. 110
MH Basha, KP Singaravelu, G Mohana
DOI:10.4103/jpgm.JPGM_352_18  PMID:30924441
In the emergency department, open isolated rib fractures are rarely seen. There is scarce literature related to open isolated first rib comminuted fracture. We report a 33-year-old male who presented with an isolated open first rib comminuted fracture following a road traffic accident. He did not have any neurovascular or major organ injuries and was managed successfully with conservative treatment.
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Recurrent Takotsubo cardiomyopathy in a postmenopausal Indian lady: Is there a pattern? p. 112
NM Sharath Babu, ST Chacko, BR Chacko, A Irodi
DOI:10.4103/jpgm.JPGM_383_17  PMID:30117480
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) is a syndrome of acute left ventricular dysfunction with a clinical presentation often mimicking acute coronary syndrome. Without a high index of suspicion, this clinical entity often goes unrecognized. Although initially categorized as a benign completely reversible condition, it is no longer considered to be so. Recurrence of this condition, though rare, has been reported in a non-Indian population. We present a case of recurrent TTC in a postmenopausal Indian lady who had a similar clinical presentation both at the index event and at recurrence.
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Mineralizing angiopathy presenting with recurrence of basal ganglia stroke following minor head trauma p. 116
H Bhardwaj, M Swami, A Singh, JS Kaushik
DOI:10.4103/jpgm.JPGM_474_18  PMID:30924444
Basal ganglia stroke secondary to mineralizing angiopathy of lenticulostriate arteries is a well-recognized clinical entity following minor head trauma in children. Recurrences are uncommon, and the majority of these recurrences occur within a few months of initial insult. We report a 2-year-old boy who developed recurrence of basal ganglia stroke after a latency of 18 months from the time of first unrecognized insult at 6 months of age. The case brings forth the need to recognize the condition of basal ganglia stroke secondary to mineralizing angiopathy considering the risk of recurrence to occur as far as 18 months after the first stroke.
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CASE SNIPPETS Top

Incidentally diagnosed fetus compressus on placental examination p. 119
MV Chikhale, P Pradhan
DOI:10.4103/jpgm.JPGM_400_18  PMID:30860080
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Solitary neurofibroma of seminal vesicle p. 121
S Rajaian, AS Paulraj, L Murugesan
DOI:10.4103/jpgm.JPGM_409_18  PMID:30924442
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Sodium thiosulfate dressings facilitate healing of refractory cutaneous ulcers of calcinosis cutis p. 123
S Karthik, A Bhatt, T Babu
DOI:10.4103/jpgm.JPGM_500_18  PMID:31036781
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Topical moxifloxacin-induced toxic epidermal necrolysis and Stevens-Johnson syndrome p. 125
A Dhavaleshwar, V Nayak, M Hande, R Pai
DOI:10.4103/jpgm.JPGM_535_18  PMID:31036782
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Silent uterine rupture: Resident's dilemma and lessons learnt p. 127
MP Tigga
DOI:10.4103/jpgm.JPGM_19_19  PMID:31036783
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Online since 12th February '04
2004 - Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Official Publication of the Staff Society of the Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, India
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow