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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2000| January-March  | Volume 46 | Issue 1  
 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Bacterial nosocomial pneumonia in Paediatric Intensive Care Unit.
MS Tullu, CT Deshmukh, SM Baveja
January-March 2000, 46(1):18-22
PMID:0010855072
AIMS: To determine the incidence, risk factors, mortality and organisms causing nosocomial pneumonia (NP) in intubated patients in Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). MATERIALS & METHODS: All patients with endotracheal (ET) tube with or without mechanical ventilation (MV) in a PICU of a tertiary care teaching hospital were included in this prospective study. Clinical parameters and investigations were evaluated in patients who developed nosocomial pneumonia (NP). Colonisation of the ET tube tip was studied by culture and the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the isolates was determined. RESULTS: Sixty-nine patients had an ET tube inserted and fifty-nine of these underwent MV. ET tube tip colonisation was seen in 70 out of 88 ET tubes inserted. The incidence of NP in patients with ET tube was 27.54% (7.96/100 days of ET intubation). NP developed only in patients undergoing MV. The main risk factors for developing NP were - duration of MV and duration of stay in the PICU. Age, sex, immunocompromised status and altered sensorium did not increase the risk of NP. The mortality in cases with NP was 47. 37%. E. coli and Klebsiella were the commonest organisms isolated from the ET tube tip cultures with maximum susceptibility to amikacin and cefotaxime. CONCLUSIONS: NP developed only in patients undergoing MV. Duration of MV and duration of stay in the PICU increased the risk of developing NP.
  10 9,773 323
Study of Takayasu's arteritis in children: clinical profile and management.
MN Muranjan, SB Bavdekar, V More, H Deshmukh, M Tripathi, R Vaswani
January-March 2000, 46(1):3-8
PMID:0010855069
AIMS: To study clinical features, pattern of involvement and treatment modalities of Takayasu's arteritis (TA) in children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of hospital records of children admitted over a period of 4.5 years. RESULTS: 17 patients in the age group of 5 to 11 years (M: F = 1.1: 1) were diagnosed to have TA on the basis of Ishikawa's criteria. One child was diagnosed post-mortem. The commonest presenting features were hypertension (64. 7%), congestive cardiac failure (47%), weak or absent peripheral pulses, cardiomyopathy (41.1% each) and cardiac valvular affection (35.2%). Retinopathy, hypertensive encephalopathy and abdominal bruits were uncommon. None presented in the prepulseless phase. No patient had an active tuberculous lesion, although Mantoux or BCG test was positive in 6 (35.2%). The predominant pattern of angiographic affection was Type II (52.9%). Nephrotic syndrome and portal cavernoma seen in one patient each were incidental associations. Anti-hypertensive drugs, oral steroids and drugs to control congestive heart failure were the mainstays of medical management. Antitubercular therapy was started in six patients. Angioplasty was attempted in 15 cases and proved to be partially beneficial in six. Three patients who failed to respond to medical management had to undergo surgical procedures, either bypass, nephrectomy or both. In-hospital mortality was 11.7%. CONCLUSIONS: Patients of TA in this study presented acutely in the pulseless phase, with hypertension and its complications. Type II involvement was the commonest pattern. Anti-hypertensive agents and steroids along with angioplasty were partially successful in controlling symptoms in 35.2%. Surgical procedures were reserved for a minority with poor response to drugs and angioplasty.
  7 10,539 368
CASE REPORT
Emphysematous pyelonephritis: a rare presentation.
SK Jain, N Agarwal, SK Chaturvedi
January-March 2000, 46(1):31-2
PMID:0010855076
Emphysematous pyelonephritis is a rare life threatening infection in diabetes characterised by suppurative infection of renal parenchyma and perirenal tissues. It usually presents with fever, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, shock, lethargy, and confusion. Diabetic ketoacidosis is an uncommon presentation. In the present case, an elderly female presented with abdominal pain, fever, vomiting, and altered sensorium. She was diagnosed to have diabetic ketoacidosis with metabolic encephalopathy with right emphysematous pyelonephritis. She had an excellent response to medical treatment alone and was later discharged on oral hypoglycaemic agents.
  6 6,741 148
Chloroquine induced parkinsonism.
RC Parmar, CV Valvi, JR Kamat, RK Vaswani
January-March 2000, 46(1):29-30
PMID:0010855075
A case of parkinsonism is reported in a 5-years-old male child following prolonged use of chloroquine. The patient presented with reduced spontaneous movements and speech with an expressionless face and a parkinsonian gait but no tremors. His investigations including CT scan brain, CSF study and serum ceruloplasmin were normal. Chloroquine was discontinued and the patient was started on oral trihexyphenidyl. The patient showed gradual recovery and the drug was successfully withdrawn. The toxic manifestations were only transient and reversible.
  6 5,999 184
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Comparison of closure of subcutaneous tissue versus non-closure in relation to wound disruption after abdominal hysterectomy in obese patients.
S Kore, M Vyavaharkar, R Akolekar, A Toke, V Ambiye
January-March 2000, 46(1):26-8
PMID:0010855074
AIMS: To evaluate the role of subcutaneous tissue closure in relation to wound disruption after abdominal hysterectomy in obese patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a prospective study at a tertiary referral centre in Mumbai, India, 60 obese patients with subcutaneous fat more than 2.5 cms were included in the study. In 30 patients, subcutaneous tissue was closed using synthetic suture (dexon) while in 30 control patients subcutaneous tissue was not closed. Average weight in the study and control groups were 69 -/+ 9.2 kg and 63.3 -/+ 11.2 kg respectively. RESULTS: The wound disruption occurred in 5 patients in non-closure group as compared to only one in the closure group. Incidence of seroma, haematoma formation and other wound complications were higher in the non-closure group. CONCLUSIONS: Closure of the subcutaneous tissue after abdominal hysterectomy of women with at least 2.5 cms of subcutaneous tissue lowers the overall rate of complications leading to disruption of the incision.
  5 15,324 251
CASE REPORT
Tuberculous cold abscess simulating pancreatic pseudocyst.
K Karia, SK Mathur
January-March 2000, 46(1):33-4
PMID:0010855077
A patient with a peripancreatic lymph node tuberculosis mimicking pancreatic pseudocyst is reported, which was diagnosed on exploration to be a tuberculous cold abscess. The patient responded to antituberculous drugs after drainage of the cold abscess.
  4 9,464 137
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Blood utilisation in elective general surgery cases: requirements, ordering and transfusion practices.
M Vibhute, SK Kamath, A Shetty
January-March 2000, 46(1):13-7
PMID:0010855071
AIMS: For elective surgeries, over ordering of blood is a common practice. This can be decreased by simple means of changing the blood cross matching and ordering schedule depending upon the type of surgery performed. The principle aim of the study was to improve the efficacy of ordering system for maximum utilisation of blood and formulation of maximum surgical blood order schedule (MSBOS) for procedures where a complete cross-match appears mandatory. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We evaluated blood ordering and transfusion practices in 500 elective general surgical procedures at our institute. With the help of different indices such as cross-match to transfusion ratio (C/T ratio), transfusion probability (% T) and transfusion index (TI), blood ordering pattern was changed in the next 150 patients. RESULTS: Out of 1145 units of blood crossmatched for the first 500 patients only 265 were transfused with non-utilisation of 76.86% of ordered blood. With the help of the indices the wastage was reduced in next 150 patients, i.e. from 76.86% to 25.26% and improved the utilisation of blood, i.e. from 23.14% to 74.74%. CONCLUSIONS: Change of blood ordering patterns with use of MSBOS can avoid the over ordering of blood.
  4 11,684 436
REVIEW ARTICLE
Hirschsprung's disease: revisited.
MM Harjai
January-March 2000, 46(1):52-4
PMID:0010855083
The diagnosis and therapy of Hirschsprung's disease has changed in recent times and a firm diagnosis of the entity can be made pre-operatively by immunohisto-chemistry. There has been a recent trend of switching over from the conventional staged surgical procedures to primary pull-through procedures. In this article the newer concepts referring to its aetiology, pathogenesis, and the current technical advancements like stapler anastomosis, laparoscopic assisted pull-through and single one stage operation without colostomy are discussed along with a brief mention of current concepts in intestinal neuronal dysplasia, enterocolitis and total colonic aganglionosis.
  4 17,542 462
CASE REPORT
Rupture of left horn of bicornuate uterus at twenty weeks of gestation.
S Kore, A Pandole, R Akolekar, N Vaidya, VR Ambiye
January-March 2000, 46(1):39-40
PMID:0010855080
Rupture uterus in nulliparous patients is generally associated with mullerian anomalies. A case of 23 years primigravida with 19 weeks gestation presenting with features of rupture is reported here. Ultrasound helped in the diagnosis of left horn of bicornuate uterus. After exploration, right ruptured horn was excised. The incidence, diagnosis and management of such cases is discussed.
  3 24,481 166
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Balloon dilatation of ureteric strictures.
SV Punekar, SR Rao, G Swami, AB Soni, JS Kinne, SS Karhadkar
January-March 2000, 46(1):23-5
PMID:0010855073
AIMS: Evaluation of dilatation as a minimally invasive technique for the treatment of ureteric strictures. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We evaluated this technique in 16 patients with ureteric and secondary pelviureteric junction strictures from June 1998. Of these, 7 were men and 9 were women. The age range was from 14 to 40 years. RESULTS: Balloon dilatation was successful in 69% of patients. Strictures secondary to previous surgery had nearly 100% success. Of the 8 cases diagnosed as genitourinary tuberculosis, success rate was 50%. CONCLUSIONS: Factors affecting success of balloon dilatation are: a) age of the stricture b) length of the stricture and c) etiology of the stricture. In a select group of patients with fresh post-operative or post-inflammatory strictures, balloon dilatation may be an attractive alternative to surgery.
  3 11,343 152
Shouldice's herniorrhaphy versus Moloney's darn herniorrhaphy in young patients (a prospective randomised study).
V Thapar, P Rao, A Deshpande, B Sanghavi, AN Supe
January-March 2000, 46(1):9-12
PMID:0010855070
AIMS: Shouldice's repair (SR) and Moloney's darn repair (DR) are commonly practised repairs for hernias in the young age group with acceptably low recurrence rates. The SR is considered technically challenging and difficult, while the DR is gaining popularity in recent years. Therefore, there is a need to compare these repairs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: To compare these techniques a total of 50 cases (age group 18-40 years) were randomised to two groups (SR 25, DR 25). These were well matched for age, the side and the type of hernia. Both groups were studied with respect to operative time; postoperative pain at 6,12 and 24 hours (evaluated by pain scale 1-10) need for analgesia, ambulation (evaluated by a four-point scale), complications and return to work. RESULTS: The SR required a longer time (average 81 minutes) compared to DR (average 43 minutes). Patients undergoing SR complained of pain of a higher scale at 6, 12 and 24 hours post surgery and had a significant higher need for analgesia on day 1 and 2 (p < 0.05). Ambulation grades were significantly better in the DR group on the first postoperative day (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the two groups with respect to postoperative complications, return to work, and recurrences rate (2-year follow-up). CONCLUSION: The SR and DR are comparable for young patients having a primary hernia. However, DR is superior in terms of the time taken, post-operative pain, need for analgesia and early ambulation.
  2 9,521 184
CASE REPORT
Round worm migration along ventriculoperitoneal shunt tract: a rare complication.
P Agarwal, SM Malapure, R Gupta, P Mane, S Parelkar, SN Oak
January-March 2000, 46(1):37-8
PMID:0010855079
Though a ventriculoperitoneal shunt has been associated with myriads of unusual complications, so has been that with roundworms. A case of a three-year-old boy is presented who had an unusual complication of roundworm migration along the shunt tract that presented as shunt tract infection.
  1 8,687 145
An unusual foreign body in the bladder.
GK Bakshi, S Agarwal, SV Shetty
January-March 2000, 46(1):41-2
PMID:0010855081
In spite of its inaccessibility, every conceivable object has been inserted into the urinary bladder. Such patients may have a psychiatric disorder with a sexual perversion or inquisitiveness (as in children) as the underlying cause. We report a case of an aluminum rod inserted into the urinary bladder by an adult male, which was removed successfully by surgery.
  1 7,112 127
EDITORIAL
Non-specific aortoarteritis.
J Deshpande
January-March 2000, 46(1):1-2
PMID:0010855068
  1 8,753 233
CASE REPORT
Active contrast extravasation in spontaneous rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma: a rare CT finding.
K Rathod, R Sheth, P Shah, S Rege
January-March 2000, 46(1):35-6
PMID:0010855078
Spontaneous rupture of hepatocellular carcinomas are uncommon but constitute a critical and life threatening condition. Diagnosis is important so that either surgery or emergency arterial embolisation can be considered for hepatic haemostasis. We describe active extravasation of intravenous contrast medium on CT in a patient who presented with intraperitoneal haemorrhage secondary to spontaneous rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma.
  - 6,742 128
SPECIAL ARTICLE
Cause of death--so-called designed event acclimaxing timed happenings.
ML Kothari, LA Mehta, VM Kothari
January-March 2000, 46(1):43-51
PMID:0010855082
Cause-of-death as an established global medical institution faces its greatest challenge in the commonplace observation that the healthy do not necessarily survive and the diseased do not necessarily die. A logical analysis of the assumed relationships between disease and death provides some insights that allow questioning the taken-for-granted relationship between defined disease/s and the final common parameter of death. Causalism as a paradigm has taken leave of all advanced sciences. In medicine, it is lingering on for anthropocentric reasons. Natural death does not come to pass because of some (replaceable) missing element, but because the evolution of the individual from womb to tomb has arrived at its final destination. To accept death as a physiologic event is to advance thanatology and to disburden medical colleges and hospitals of a lot of avoidable thinking and doing.
  - 17,290 175
Online since 12th February '04
2004 - Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Official Publication of the Staff Society of the Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, India
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow