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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2003| January-March  | Volume 49 | Issue 1  
 
 
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SYMPOSIUM
Recent advances in the diagnosis of leishmaniasis.
S Singh, R Sivakumar
January-March 2003, 49(1):55-60
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.927  PMID:12865572
Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease caused by a haemoflagellate Leishmania. There are more than 21 species causing human infection. The infection is transmitted to humans through the bites of female sandflies belonging to 30 species. The disease manifests mainly in 3 forms: the visceral, the cutaneous and the mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. The diagnosis of visceral form is conventionally made by the demonstration of amastigotes of the parasite in the aspirated fluid from the bone marrow, the spleen, and rarely from the lymph nodes, or the liver. The parasite demonstration and isolation rates are rather poor from cutaneous and mucocutaneous lesions due to low parasite load and high rate of culture contamination. Recently several recombinant proteins have been developed to accomplish accurate diagnosis. Recombinant kinesin protein of 39 kDa called rK 39 is the most promising of these molecules. The antigen used in various test formats has been proved highly sensitive and specific for visceral leishmaniasis. It is useful in the diagnosis of HIV-Leishmania co-infection and as a prognostic marker. Molecular techniques targeting various genes of the parasite have also been reported, the PCR being the most common molecular technique successfully used for diagnosis and for differentiation of species.
  96 59,944 1,385
Cutaneous leishmaniasis: an overview.
NC Hepburn
January-March 2003, 49(1):50-4
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.928  PMID:12865571
Leishmaniasis is a major world health problem, which is increasing in incidence. In Northern Europe it is seen in travellers returning from endemic areas. The protozoa is transmitted by sandflies and may produce a variety of clinical syndromes varying from a simple ulcer to fatal systemic disease. This review considers the management of simple cutaneous leishmaniasis. Patients usually have a single ulcer that may heal spontaneously, requiring only topical, or no treatment at all. Lesions caused by Leishmania braziliensis may evolve into the mucocutaneous form, 'espundia', and should be treated with systemic antimony. Sodium stibogluconate 20mg/kg/day i.v. for 20 days is the appropriate first line treatment in these cases. Although it may cause transient bone marrow suppression, liver damage, a chemical pancreatitis, and disturbances in the electrocardiogram, it appears safe. The success of treatment should be assessed 6 weeks after it has been completed and patients should be followed up for 6 months.
  85 33,879 1,088
REVIEW ARTICLE
Neuroprotection in glaucoma.
S Kaushik, SS Pandav, J Ram
January-March 2003, 49(1):90-5
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.917  PMID:12865582
Currently, glaucoma is recognised as an optic neuropathy. Selective death of retinal ganglion cells (RGC) is the hallmark of glaucoma, which is also associated with structural changes in the optic nerve head. The process of RGC death is thought to be biphasic: a primary injury responsible for initiation of damage that is followed by a slower secondary degeneration related to noxious environment surrounding the degenerating cells. For example, retinal ishaemia may establish a cascade of changes that ultimately result in cell death: hypoxia leads to excitotoxic levels of glutamate, which cause a rise in intra-cellular calcium, which in turn, leads to neuronal death due to apoptosis or necrosis. Neuroprotection is a process that attempts to preserve the cells that were spared during the initial insult, but are still vulnerable to damage. Although not yet available, a neuroprotective agent would be of great use in arresting the progression of glaucoma. There is evidence that neuroprotection can be achieved both pharmacologically and immunologically. Pharmacological intervention aims at neutralising some of the effects of the nerve-derived toxic factors, thereby increasing the ability of the spared neurons to cope with stressful conditions. On the other hand, immunological interventions boost the body's own repair mechanisms for counteracting the toxic effects of various chemicals generated during the cascade. This review, based on a literature search using MEDLINE, focuses on diverse cellular events associated with glaucomatous neurodegeneration, and discusses some pharmacological agents believed to have a neuroprotective role in glaucoma.
  66 28,374 1,116
SYMPOSIUM
Recent understanding in the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis.
E Rosenthal, P Marty
January-March 2003, 49(1):61-8
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.926  PMID:12865573
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe disease associated with infection of the reticuloendothelial system by Leishmania species. The infection is acquired through sandfly bites. Recent large scale epidemics of VL in east Africa and India and the emergence of a HIV epidemic make VL a priority for the World Health Organization. Pentavalent antimonials have been cornerstone of treatment for the last six decades. The appearance of antimonial-resistance and the development of lipid formulations of amphotericin B have changed the pattern of VL treatment. Within the past five years, miltefosine has been demonstrated as the first effective and safe oral treatment against VL. The price of miltefosine is yet to be determined. However, miltefosine will certainly be cheaper than lipid formulations of amphotericin B, which are beyond the financial capacity of the poor countries. Because it can be administered orally, miltefosine is suited for the treatment of large number of patients who get affected during epidemics, particularly in regions where the parasites are resistant to the currently used agents. Here, we recommend different treatment schedules according to the resistance pattern and the region-specific socio-economical and cultural factors.
  59 21,711 812
Leishmaniasis in HIV infection.
R Paredes, J Munoz, I Diaz, P Domingo, M Gurgui, B Clotet
January-March 2003, 49(1):39-49
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.929  PMID:12865570
Herein we review the particular aspects of leishmaniasis associated with HIV infection. The data in this review are mainly from papers identified from PubMed searches and from papers in reference lists of reviewed articles and from the authors' personal archives. Epidemiological data of HIV/Leishmania co-infection is discussed, with special focus on the influence of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) on incidence of leishmaniasis and transmission modalities. Microbiological characteristics, pathogenesis, clinical presentation and specific treatment of the co-infection are also presented.
  54 37,178 731
An overview of paediatric leishmaniasis.
DA Kafetzis
January-March 2003, 49(1):31-8
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.930  PMID:12865569
Leishmaniasis, a parasitic disease transmitted by the bite of some species of sandflies affects various age groups depending on the infecting Leishmania species, geographic location, disease reservoir, and host immunocompetence. Visceral leishmaniasis is the most severe form of the disease affecting children. The extent and presentation of the disease depend on several factors, including the humoral and cell-mediated immune response of the host, the virulence of the infecting species, and the parasite burden. Children are at greater risk than adults in endemic areas. Malnutrition contributes to the development of disease, and incomplete therapy of initial disease is a risk factor for recurrence of leishmaniasis. Children usually present with intermittent fever, paleness, refusal to feed or anorexia, weight loss, and abdominal distension. Splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, lymph node enlargement, thrombocytopaenia, anaemia, leukopaenia and hypergammaglobulinemia are the most common findings in Paediatric leishmaniasis. Molecular methods appear to offer the promise of accurate non-invasive tools for the diagnosis of Leishmaniasis. Till these methods are evaluated, definite diagnosis will rely on the demonstration of the infecting parasite in various tissues. World-wide, with the notable exception of India, pentavalent antimonial compounds remain the most effective and the most affordable therapy for this disease. Lipid formulations of amphotericin B were assessed as short duration treatment and were proved to be effective. However, their cost precludes their wide use in developing countries. Miltefosine, a new oral agent, might prove effective, safe, and affordable. Strategies aimed at control of the micro-population of sandflies, eradication of canine leishmaniasis, and offering personal protection against sandfly bites, together with health education programs in developing countries, can help control the disease. Development of an effective vaccine remains a priority.
  40 23,412 667
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
A study of anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibodies in systemic vasculitis and other related disorders.
VD Pradhan, SS Badakere, YS Iyer, R Kumar, AF Almeida
January-March 2003, 49(1):5-9
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.936  PMID:12865563
BACKGROUND: Anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibodies (ANCA) play an important role as specific and sensitive markers for small vessel vasculitis and in some other systemic disorders. Indirect immunofluorescence test, known as the "Gold Standard" for screening of ANCA, can be further substantiated by ELISA for confirmation and for identifying sub-specificities like anti-Myeloperoxidase (anti-MPO), anti-Proteinase 3 (anti-PR3) and anti-Lactoferrin (anti-LF). AIMS: The present study was undertaken to investigate the incidence, specificities and strength of ANCA in suspected vasculitis cases and to correlate their presence with that of these auto-antibodies and with the disease. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Sera from 130 clinically suspected vasculitis patients were studied. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy (IIF) was used to identify cytoplasmic (c-ANCA), perinuclear (p-ANCA) and atypical (X-ANCA) patterns using ethanol and formalin fixed polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) and HL-60 cells from a human promyelocytic leukaemic cell line as substrates. ELISA was performed for identifying ANCA sub-specificities to anti-MPO and anti-PR3 and HEp-2 cells were used for detection of anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA). RESULTS: ANCA positivity was noted in 42.3% of these patients, wherein p-ANCA positivity rate was 34.6% and c-ANCA positivity was noted in 5.4% subjects. Three patients showed the unusual X-ANCA positivity. ELISA determined the sub-specificities: Out of 45 p-ANCA positive patients, 38 patients (84.4%) had anti-MPO and out of 7 c-ANCA positive patients, 5 patients (71.4%) had anti-PR3 antibodies. One patient with Class IV Lupus Nephritis, showed both anti-MPO and anti-PR3 antibodies and 17.8% p-ANCA positive patients had anti-Lactoferrin antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: Use of the Immunofluorescence method coupled with identification of ANCA sub-specificities by ELISA, is recommended for detection of ANCA in clinically suspected cases of small vessel and other systemic vasculitis.
  26 14,725 374
DRUG REVIEW
Miltefosine: great expectations against visceral leishmaniasis.
B More, H Bhatt, V Kukreja, SS Ainapure
January-March 2003, 49(1):101-3
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.911  PMID:12865588
  21 18,423 384
CASE REPORT
Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis complicating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in an immunocompetent patient.
ZA Ali, AA Ali, ME Tempest, MJ Wiselka
January-March 2003, 49(1):78-80
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.922  PMID:12865577
Immunocompromised individuals are susceptible to pulmonary aspergillus infection, but invasive aspergillus infection is extremely rare in the presence of normal immunity. We report a case of invasive aspergillosis in an immunocompetent 63-year-old male with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Patients with COPD may be at risk for developing pulmonary aspergillus infection, which should be considered as a diagnostic possibility in patients with unresolving pulmonary infection.
  17 15,968 361
BRIEF REPORTS
Association between anti-endomysial antibody and total intestinal villous atrophy in children with coeliac disease.
F Ozgenc, G Aksu, S Aydogdu, S Akman, F Genel, N Kutukculer, MB Alkanat, R Vural Yagci
January-March 2003, 49(1):21-4
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.933  PMID:12865566
BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence to suggest that detection of anti-gliadin antibody (AGA) and anti-endomysial antibody (EmA) can serve as sensitive markers of the degree of histological abnormalities in patients with coeliac disease. AIM: To evaluate the association between the presence of AGA and EmA and villous atrophy in intestinal biopsies of children with suspected coeliac disease. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Intestinal samples of 46 children with failure to thrive, chronic diarrhoea, malabsorption and short stature with either AGA and/or EmA positivity were evaluated, retrospectively. The diagnosis of coeliac disease was based on ESPGHAN criteria. METHODS AND MATERIAL: Patients with total villous atrophy who fulfilled the ESPGHAN criteria for the diagnosis of coeliac disease were diagnosed to have coeliac disease. Nine patients without villous atrophy were taken as negative controls for this study. AGA-IgA was measured both by immunoflourescence (IF) and ELISA and EmA-IgA by IF while patients were on normal diet. Relationship between autoantibody positivity and intestinal total villous atrophy was evaluated. RESULTS: Overall positivity for AGA IgA was 85% (39/46) by IF+ELISA and EmA positivity was 85% (39/46) by IF within the study group. Histological examination revealed total villous atrophy with lymphocyte infiltration and crypt hyperplasia in 37 (80%) patients. AGA IgA was positive in 14 (38%) and 31 (84%) of these children by ELISA and IF, respectively. EmA positivity was detected in 35/37 (95%) cases with atrophy and 4/9 (44%) without atrophy (p=0.002). Thirty out of 37 (81%) patients with villous atrophy had both AGA IgA (IF) and EmA positivity (p=0.186). All of the sixteen patients that had both positive AGA IgA (ELISA+IF) and EmA had total villous atrophy (p=0.037). CONCLUSION: A significant association between total villous atrophy and EmA positivity has been documented in this study.
  13 19,402 247
Malignant tumours of the minor salivary glands: a survival analysis of 17 years from a tertiary referral cancer centre.
M Pandey, S Thomas, A Mathew, MK Nair
January-March 2003, 49(1):25-8
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.932  PMID:12865567
BACKGROUND: Malignant tumours of the minor salivary glands are rare and constitute less than 0.5% of all malignant neoplasms. AIM: This study was carried out to evaluate the clinical presentation, site distribution, treatment, survival and predictors of survival in malignant minor salivary gland tumours. SETTING: A tertiary care, superspeciality referral hospital. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. PATIENTS AND METHOD: Forty-two cases of minor salivary gland tumours treated over a period of 17 years were reviewed for clinical presentation, histopathology, stage distribution, treatment and treatment outcome. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Survival by Kaplan Meier Method and the outcomes were compared using log-rank test. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 46.9 years with a male to female ratio of 1.4:1. Majority of the patients presented with a painless progressive swelling, with 13 (31%) of them in T2 stage. About one-third of the patients had palpable lymph nodes at presentation, while none had distant metastasis. Palate was the commonest site and mucoepidermoid carcinoma was the commonest hispathological type. About 1/3 of the patients were treated with primary surgery and were followed up by adjuvant radiotherapy. Seven patients underwent palliative treatment alone. Over a mean follow-up of 30 months, 5 patients failed. The disease free survival was 72% at 5-year, none of the factors studied were found to significantly influence survival. CONCLUSIONS: Results of the present study suggest that minor salivary gland tumours should be treated with primary surgery irrespective of site and histological type to achieve best loco-regional control and survival.
  13 11,131 288
Prevention of reperfusion lung injury by lidocaine in isolated rat lung ventilated with higher oxygen levels.
KC Das, HP Misra
January-March 2003, 49(1):17-20
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.934  PMID:12865565
BACKGROUND: Lidocaine, an antiarrhythmic drug has been shown to be effective against post-ischaemic reperfusion injury in heart. However, its effect on pulmonary reperfusion injury has not been investigated. AIMS: We investigated the effects of lidocaine on a postischaemic reperfused rat lung model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Lungs were isolated and perfused at constant flow with Krebs-Henseilet buffer containing 4% bovine serum albumin, and ventilated with 95% oxygen mixed with 5% CO2. Lungs were subjected to ischaemia by stopping perfusion for 60 minutes followed by reperfusion for 10 minutes. Ischaemia was induced in normothermic conditions. RESULTS: Postischaemic reperfusion caused significant (p < 0.0001) higher wet-to-dry lung weight ratio, pulmonary arterial pressure and peak airway pressure compared to control lungs. Lidocaine, at a dose of 5mg/Kg b.w. was found to significantly (p < 0.0001) attenuate the increase in the wet-to-dry lung weight ratio, pulmonary arterial pressure and peak airway pressure observed in post-ischaemic lungs. CONCLUSION: Lidocaine is effective in preventing post-ischaemic reperfusion injury in isolated, perfused rat lung.
  12 9,816 244
CASE REPORT
Adamantinoma of tibia: a case of late local recurrence along with lung metastases.
DK Filippou, V Papadopoulos, E Kiparidou, NT Demertzis
January-March 2003, 49(1):75-7
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.923  PMID:12865576
Adamantinomas of long bones are rare primary low-grade malignant tumours composed of cells with epithelial and fibrous characteristics. Local recurrence, though scarce, occurs 5-15 years after the onset of diagnosis. We report a case of local recurrence of an adamantinoma localised in tibia, along with the presence of two lung metastases, 24 years after diagnosis and surgical therapy of the primary tumour. The local recurrence and the lung metastases were removed surgically. The patient remains free of the disease for 3 years.
  11 11,268 221
SYMPOSIUM
Indian kala-azar--better tools needed for diagnosis and treatment.
S Sundar
January-March 2003, 49(1):29-30
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.931  PMID:12865568
  11 10,127 326
IMAGES IN MEDICINE
Harlequin foetus.
S Bianca, C Ingegnosi, F Bonaffini
January-March 2003, 49(1):81-2
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.921  PMID:12865578
  10 22,106 237
BRIEF REPORTS
Lipid peroxidation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the pathogenesis of nosocomial sepsis.
EJ Giamarellos-Bourboulis, S Skiathitis, A Dionyssiou-Asteriou, S Hatziantoniou, K Demetzos, I Dontas, GT Papaioannou, G Karatzas, G Helen
January-March 2003, 49(1):11-6
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.935  PMID:12865564
BACKGROUND: To study whether Pseudomonas aeruginosa may directly trigger peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, since lipid peroxidation is a mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of sepsis. METHODS: Gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) was administered intravenously at a dose of 25mg/kg in an infusion time of 10 minutes to seven male rabbits. Blood samples were collected from the hepatic veins and from the carotid artery at regular time intervals. One clinical isolate was ex vivo incubated with the serum derived from the latter samples and concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined during incubation in the growth medium by the thiobarbiturate assay. RESULTS: Elevated concentrations of MDA compared to their basal levels were found over the first three hours of incubation in the presence of samples collected 30 to 60 minutes after the end of the infusion of GLA. After infusion of GLA concentrations of arachidonic acid in the serum increased to concentrations comparable to those detected in sepsis. CONCLUSION: Direct triggering of lipid peroxidation by nosocomial isolates might be proposed as a pathogenetic mechanism of sepsis.
  9 8,253 217
GRAND ROUND CASE
A reversible form of cardiomyopathy.
SM Kini, SJ Pednekar, ST Nabar, P Varthakavi
January-March 2003, 49(1):85-7
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.919  PMID:12865580
  9 15,664 275
CASE REPORT
Incomplete Kawasaki disease with recurrent skin peeling: a case report with the review of literature.
RC Parmar, A Somale, SB Bavdekar, MN Muranjan
January-March 2003, 49(1):72-4
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.924  PMID:12865575
Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute systemic vasculitis of unknown aetiology that has largely replaced rheumatic heart disease as a cause of acquired heart disease in children of many developed countries. We report a case of incomplete KD in a five-year-old girl. The diagnosis of incomplete KD was made after exclusion of conditions with similar presentation. She was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin following which she made an uneventful recovery but demonstrated thrombocytosis in the second week of convalescence. During the six-month follow up period, she had two episodes of recurrent skin peeling a phenomenon, which is recently reported with KD but not with atypical or incomplete KD. It is important for the treating physicians to become aware of the incomplete KD as prompt diagnosis and early treatment of these patients with intravenous immunoglobulin is vital for the prevention of lethal coronary complications. Physicians need to have a "high index of suspicion" for KD and even, higher for IKD.
  8 28,556 396
LETTER TO EDITOR
Successful pregnancy outcome in a patient with complete heart block.
S Mehta, D Goswami, A Tempe
January-March 2003, 49(1):98-98
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.913  PMID:12865586
  7 11,735 226
Fever, delirium, autonomic instability, and monocytosis associated with olanzapine.
RL Robinson, MS Burk, S Raman
January-March 2003, 49(1):96-96
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.916  PMID:12865583
  6 10,130 205
Spermatic cord metastasis from prostatic cancer.
AS Bawa, R Singh, VK Bansal, RS Punia
January-March 2003, 49(1):97-8
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.914  PMID:12865585
  6 7,708 159
IMAGES IN PATHOLOGY
Isolated splenic metastases occurring as an unknown primary lesion.
S Alici, M Kosem, C Kotan
January-March 2003, 49(1):83-4
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.920  PMID:12865579
  5 11,728 222
TECHNIQUE REVIEW
A simple distal interlocking aid for intramedullary nails.
AY Bonshahi, A Cowey, R Vhadra
January-March 2003, 49(1):99-100
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.912  PMID:12865587
  3 8,692 170
LETTER TO EDITOR
Metastatic renal cell carcinoma involving ethmoid sinus at presentation.
GK Maheshwari, HA Baboo, MH Patel, G Usha
January-March 2003, 49(1):96-7
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.915  PMID:12865584
  2 7,820 182
EDITORIAL
To clone or not to clone.
L Rajgopal
January-March 2003, 49(1):3-4
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.937  PMID:12865562
  1 14,154 213
Spot the diagnosis. Sigmoid volvulus with pre-gangrenous changes.
AP Saklani, T Satheskumar, J Nagabhushan, RJ Delicata
January-March 2003, 49(1):74-77
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.883  PMID:12872753
  - 6,820 0
CASE REPORT
Relative adrenal insufficiency in post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder.
RD Cinclair, JC Rice, M Agraharkar
January-March 2003, 49(1):69-71
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.925  PMID:12865574
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder is treated with rapid decrement of immunosuppressive therapy. This cannot be achieved with ease in patients on long-term glucocorticoid therapy, as chronically suppressed adrenal glands may not be capable of mounting adequate response to stress. A 52-year-old Caucasian male presented with fever, orthostatic hypotension, lymphadenopathy and hyponatraemia. Serum cortisol levels were within normal levels with a sub optimal response to stimulation by ACTH. Hyponatraemia and orthostasis responded poorly to fluid restriction, saline and salt repletion but corrected after increasing the steroid dose. The normal baseline cortisol levels represented a stimulated adrenal gland, however, the ACTH stimulation had inadequate response. This sub optimal stimulation and a good response to increased steroids suggest the presence of relative or occult adrenal insufficiency. Relative adrenal insufficiency must be considered in patients who have received prolonged glucocorticoid therapy and have symptoms such as hypotension and/or hyponatraemia.
  - 12,371 183
VIEW POINT
A new vision on audition: a comparative study of the apparatus concerned with equilibrium and hearing.
K Shyam Kishore
January-March 2003, 49(1):88-9
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.918  PMID:12865581
  - 7,715 150
Online since 12th February '04
2004 - Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Official Publication of the Staff Society of the Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, India
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow