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   2011| October-December  | Volume 57 | Issue 4  
    Online since November 22, 2011

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Tuberculosis and female reproductive health
K Ghosh, K Ghosh, JR Chowdhury
October-December 2011, 57(4):307-313
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.90082  PMID:22120860
Tuberculosis (TB) is an important cause of mortality and morbidity all over the world and is particularly relevant in developing countries like India where the disease is endemic. Female reproductive system is very vulnerable to this infection and clinical presentation of this disease in female reproductive tract is protean in nature and in a large majority of patients could be completely silent. This disease is an important cause of infertility, menstrual irregularity, pregnancy loss, and in association with pregnancy, morbidity to both the mother and child increases. Some of the effects of TB infection on female genital tract could be remote in nature due to infection elsewhere. Medicines used to treat TB infection can also have adverse effects on contraception and other areas of female reproductive health. HIV coinfection and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and increased population migration from developed to developing countries have now added a whole new dimension to this infection. Though new, finer diagnostic tools of detection of TB are increasingly available in the form of bacterial cultures and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based diagnostics, suspicion by clinicians remains the main tool for diagnosis of the condition. Hence, doctors need to be properly trained to become "Tuberculosis Minded".
  29,756 43 7
ADR REPORT
Amlodipine-induced petechial rash
MB Murthy, B Murthy
October-December 2011, 57(4):341-342
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.90091  PMID:22120868
A patient of essential hypertension stabilized on 10 mg amlodipine once daily developed brownish black petechial non-blanching macular rash bilaterally covering the limbs below the knee and dorsum of the feet. History, general and clinical examinations and lab investigations revealed no abnormalities. Temporal association of the onset of rash with amlodipine use, inability to explain rash by natural history of hypertension, possibility of rash with amlodipine and rash resolution on dechallenge placed this reaction in Naranjo score of 6, a probable adverse reaction to amlodipine. Hence the drug was replaced by enalapril. The rash resolved completely over a period of eight weeks.
  27,926 28 2
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Evaluation of eperisone hydrochloride in the treatment of acute musculoskeletal spasm associated with low back pain: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
AS Chandanwale, A Chopra, A Goregaonkar, B Medhi, V Shah, S Gaikwad, DG Langade, S Maroli, SC Mehta, A Naikwadi, DR Pawar
October-December 2011, 57(4):278-285
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.90076  PMID:22120855
Background : Eperisone hydrochloride is a centrally acting muscle relaxant inhibiting the pain reflex pathway, having a vasodilator effect. Aims : To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of eperisone in patients with acute musculoskeletal spasm associated with low back pain. Settings and Design : Prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentric trial conducted at five tertiary care orthopedic centers across India. Materials and Methods : It was planned to enroll 240 patients of either sex between 18-60 years with acute musculoskeletal spasm (AMSP) with low back pain (LBP) due to spondylosis deformans, prolapsed disc or muscle sprain. Patients with other associated unrelated spasm conditions were excluded. Assessments were done for finger-to-floor distance (FFD), lumbar pain, Lasegue's sign, tenderness of vertebral muscles, need for rescue medication and response to therapy for efficacy and tolerability. Statistical Analysis : Parametric data were analyzed by 't' test and ANOVA, and non-parametric data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney 'U' test and Kruskall-Wallis test. Proportions were compared using Fischer's (Chi-square) test. Results : Two hundred and forty patients were randomized to receive eperisone 150 mg/day in three divided doses (n=120) or placebo (n=120) for 14 days, of which 15 patients did not complete and 225 patients completed the study (eperisone, 112 and placebo, 113). Significantly greater improvement in FFD (P<0.001) from baseline on Day 14 was seen with eperisone (150.66 to 41.75) compared to placebo (138.51 to 101.60). Improvements in other parameters were greater with the eperisone group. For 89 (79.46%) patients the therapy was rated as good-excellent with eperisone compared to 43 (38.05%) patients with placebo. Nausea, abdominal pain, headache and dizziness were the common adverse events with both therapies. Rescue drug was needed by 40 (35.71%) eperisone patients and 83 (73.45%) placebo patients. Conclusions : Eperisone hydrochloride was effective and well tolerated for the treatment of patients with AMSP with LBP.
  18,324 51 4
REVIEW ARTICLES
Statin intolerance: Now a solved problem
P Sikka, S Kapoor, VK Bindra, M Sharma, P Vishwakarma, KK Saxena
October-December 2011, 57(4):321-328
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.90085  PMID:22120862
Statins are the most effective and widely used drugs for treating dyslipidemia, a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. These are one of the safest hypolipidemic drugs but many patients are bound to discontinue statins due to their side effects. Hepatotoxicity, myotoxicity and peripheral neuropathy are important out of them. Discontinuation of statins leads to dylipidemia and its grave consequences. Hence, there should be enough strategies for statin intolerant patients, so that they can be saved from these consequences. These side effects can be avoided by the awareness of certain factors viz. potential drug interactions and dose adjustment according to patho-physiology of the patient. Baseline investigations for liver function and muscle toxicity should be done before initiating statin therapy. Here, we are discussing various options for statin intolerant hyperlipidemic patients such as lower and intermittent dosing of statins, alternate hypolipidemic drugs, red yeast rice, supplementation with coenzyme Q10 and vitamin D. A number of hypolipidemic drugs are in trial phases and hold promise for statin intolerant patients.
  15,265 61 10
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with acute lung injury and ARDS
RR Bhadade, RA de Souza, MJ Harde, A Khot
October-December 2011, 57(4):286-290
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.90077  PMID:22120856
Background : Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are critical illnesses associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Aims : This was designed to assess various etiologies of ALI/ARDS, to determine the correlation between the diagnostic criteria and need of mechanical ventilation, and to correlate biochemical factors with the outcome of patients. Settings and Design : An observational, prospective study was conducted in a medical intensive care unit (MICU) of a tertiary care hospital, for a period of 1 year. Materials and Methods : This study encompassed 58 consecutive cases of ALI/ARDS admitted to a MICU as per AECC guidelines. Patients excluded were with cardiac failure, chronic kidney diseases with fluid overload, and age below 12 years. Statistical Analysis : The data were analysed applying χ2 -test, multivariate logistic regression analysis of significance, using computer-based program SPSS. Results : There were more males (74%) than females, and presentation was more common in the younger age group, with a total mortality of 57%. Factors attributable for ALI/ARDS were malaria in 16 patients (27.6%), leptospirosis in 12 (20.7%), malaria with dengue in 3 (5.2%), undiagnosed fever in 16 (27.6%), pneumonia in 8 (13.8%), urinary tract infection in 2 (3.4%), and pancreatitis in 1 (1.7%) patient. Out of 41 patients with PaO 2 /FiO 2 <200, 40 patients required invasive ventilation, and out of 17 patients with PaO 2 /FiO 2 >200, 11 patients though initially managed on noninvasive ventilation (NIV) subsequently required invasive ventilation, and remaining six were successfully managed on NIV. Out of 41 patients requiring mechanical ventilation, 36 had LIS >2.5, whereas only 3 out of 17 patients with LIS <2.5 required mechanical ventilation. Conclusion : Malaria, leptospirosis, and undiagnosed fever were the main etiologies followed by pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and pancreatitis. Both the PaO 2 /FiO 2 ratio and lung injury score (LIS) at the time of admission were significant predictors of the outcome and of necessity of mechanical ventilation. PaO 2 /FiO 2 was a better predictor of duration of stay at the intensive care unit than the LIS. Sepsis, acidosis, hypotension, and multiorgan failure were individual predictors of mortality in patients with ALI/ARDS while age, sex, anemia, thrombocytopenia, renal failure, hepatic failure, and X-ray picture were not predictors of the outcome.
  7,923 42 12
CASE REPORTS
Neuralgic amyotrophy associated with dengue fever: Case series of three patients
R Verma, P Sharma, N Khurana, LN Sharma
October-December 2011, 57(4):329-331
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.90086  PMID:22120863
Dengue is an acute mosquito borne viral infection caused by one of the four distinct serotype of dengue viruses (type 1-4), belonging to flavivirus family. Dengue fever, an arboviral infection is known to cause various neurological complications. Commonly reported neurological manifestations associated with dengue infection are encephalopathy, myelopathy, stroke, Guillain-Barre syndrome and hypokalemic paralysis. Brachial amyotrophy associated with dengue infection were not described previously. Here, we describe three patients presenting with brachial neuritis associated with dengue infection. Dengue infection should be considered in the etiological list of brachial neuritis in dengue endemic areas, especially if preceded by history of febrile illness compatible with dengue illness.
  6,892 16 5
Anterior abdominal wall abscess with epididymo-orchitis: An unusual presentation of acute pancreatitis
PM Kamble, A Patil, S Jadhav, SA Rao
October-December 2011, 57(4):335-337
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.90088  PMID:22120865
Pancreatitis indicates inflammation of the pancreas. Clinically acute pancreatitis typically presents as upper abdominal pain mostly in epigastric region, nausea, vomiting and elevated levels of amylase and lipase. Depending upon severity of acute pancreatitis patient may presents with minimal symptoms to more severe signs of acute abdomen like generalized guarding and rigidity. Inspite of absence of disease-specific signs and symptoms for acute pancreatitis, diagnosis is usually not difficult using a combination of clinical, laboratory and radiological findings. Sometimes pancreatitis may presents atypically, which may be misleading in the management especially when typical presentation of pancreatitis as described above is absent. We have described a case of pancreatitis where patient presented with anterior abdominal wall abscess with epididymo-orchitis because of tracking of pancreatic fluid into the retroperitoneum till scrotum. Patients presentation may be different depending upon complication occurred during the course of pancreatitis. After reviewing the literature we found very few cases in which you may not get a clue to diagnose pancreatitis because of atypical presentation. In the described case, patient managed conservatively with percutaneous drainage of the abscess by pigtail catheter placement and scrotal support for epididymoorchitis. This avoided unnecessary exploration in above patient.
  6,456 17 3
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Prevalence of diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome in subjects with and without schizophrenia (CURES-104)
R Subashini, M Deepa, R Padmavati, R Thara, V Mohan
October-December 2011, 57(4):272-277
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.90075  PMID:22120854
Background : There are some reports that diabetes and metabolic syndrome (MS) are more prevalent among schizophrenia patients. However, there are very few studies in India which have estimated the prevalence of diabetes and MS in schizophrenia patients. Aims : The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of diabetes, obesity, and MS in subjects with and without schizophrenia. Settings and Design : This case control study comprised of "cases" i.e. subjects with schizophrenia recruited from a schizophrenia centre at Chennai and "controls" i.e. healthy age- and gender-matched subjects without psychiatric illness selected from an ongoing epidemiological study in Chennai in a 1:4 ratio of cases: Controls. Materials and Methods : Fasting plasma glucose and serum lipids were estimated for all subjects. Anthropometric measures including height, weight, and waist circumference were assessed. Diabetes and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) were defined using American Diabetes Association criteria. Statistical analysis : One-way ANOVA or student's "t" test was used to compare continuous variables and Chi-square test to compare proportion between two groups. Results : The study group comprised of 655 subjects, 131 with schizophrenia and a control group of 524 subjects without schizophrenia. The prevalence of the diabetes, IFG, abdominal obesity and MS were significantly higher among subjects with schizophrenia compared to those without schizophrenia-diabetes (15.3% vs. 7.3%, P=0.003), IFG (31.3% vs. 8.6%, P<0.001), abdominal obesity (59.2% vs. 44.7%, P<0.001), and MS (34.4% vs. 24%, P=0.014). Conclusion : In subjects with schizophrenia, the prevalence of diabetes, IFG, abdominal obesity, and MS is significantly higher than in those without schizophrenia.
  6,301 37 9
REVIEW ARTICLES
Foothold of NPHS2 mutations in primary nephrotic syndrome
AT Jaffer, WU Ahmed, DS Raju, P Jahan
October-December 2011, 57(4):314-320
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.90083  PMID:22120861
Glomerular podocytes are highly specialized cells with a complex cytoarchitecture. Their most prominent features are interdigitated foot processes with filtration slits in between. These are bridged by the slit diaphragm, which plays a major role in establishing the selective permeability of the glomerular filtration barrier. We searched Medline and Pubmed using the combination of keywords "NPHS2", "podocin", "steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome," and "genetics" to identify studies describing an association between NPHS2 gene and renal disease. The highly dynamic foot processes contain an actin-based contractile apparatus comparable to that of smooth muscle cells. Mutations affecting several podocyte proteins lead to rearrangement of the cytoskeleton, disruption of the filtration barrier, and subsequent renal disease. The fact that the dynamic regulation of the podocyte cytoskeleton is vital to kidney function has led to podocytes emerging as an excellent model system for studying actin cytoskeleton dynamics in a physiological context. Injury to podocytes leads to proteinuria, a hallmark of most glomerular diseases. Recent studies have led to a considerable increase in our understanding of podocyte biology including composition and arrangement of the cytoskeleton involved in the control of ultrafiltration. Moreover, disturbances of podocyte architecture resulting in the retraction of foot processes and proteinuria appear to be a common theme in the progression of an acquired glomerular disease. In hereditary nephrotic syndromes identified over the last few years, all mutated gene products were localized in podocytes. This review integrates our recent physiological and molecular understanding of the role of podocytes during the maintenance and failure of the glomerular filtration barrier.
  6,210 25 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Diabetes insipidus as the first symptom caused by lung cancer metastasis to the pituitary glands: Clinical presentations, diagnosis, and management
JF Mao, JL Zhang, M Nie, SH Lu, XY Wu
October-December 2011, 57(4):302-306
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.90080  PMID:22120859
Background : Central diabetes insipidus (CDI), secondary to pituitary metastatic lesions, is uncommon; however, lung and breast cancer are the commonest malignancies to have metastases to the pituitary. Early management of systemic chemotherapy and pituitary irradiation might improve the prognosis of patients. Aims : To investigate the clinical features, diagnosis, and management of CDI caused by lung cancer metastasis to the pituitary glands. Materials and Methods : We retrospectively reviewed 10 patients who had CDI as their first symptom before their lung cancers were diagnosed. Their clinical presentations, anterior pituitary gland function, sellar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), management, and prognosis were described. Settings and Design : This retrospective cross-sectional clinical study was conducted in a medical college hospital. Results : The patient's mean age was 58.6±7.8 years. Diabetes insipidus was the main complaint when they were referred to our hospital. MRI revealed specific dumbbell-shaped masses in the sella turcica in five patients. In seven patients whose hormones were measured, the levels of hormones from adenohypophysis were abnormally low in six patients. The main treatments included surgery, systemic chemotherapy, and sellar irradiation. Although nine patients had poor prognoses, one patient has survived for more than 3 years, suggesting benefit from early diagnosis and treatment. Conclusions : New-onset CDI might be the only symptom presented by the patients with pituitary metastasis (PM) from lung cancer. Dumbbell-shaped sellar masses in MRI are prone to the diagnosis of PM. A thorough examination for primary cancer should be carried out in these aged and elderly patients.
  6,154 27 5
An evaluation of the effect of atorvastatin on memory and psychomotor functions in hypertensive patients
S Prajapati, CK Desai, RK Dikshit
October-December 2011, 57(4):291-297
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.90078  PMID:22120857
Background : The effect of statins on memory and psychomotor function has been controversial and needs further evaluation. Aims : To evaluate the effect of atorvastatin on memory and psychomotor functions in hypertensive patients treated with enalapril or amlodipine. Settings and Design : Prospective, comparative, non-randomized, before-after, open-label clinical study conducted at a tertiary care hospital in Western India. Materials and Methods : Memory was evaluated with PGI (Post Graduate Institute, Chandigarh) Memory Scale, while psychomotor functions were evaluated with Digit Letter Substitution test, Six Letter Cancellation test, and Finger Tapping test at baseline, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months of starting atorvastatin in 74 hypertensive patients who were prescribed either enalapril or amlodipine with or without atorvastatin 10 mg/day. Scores obtained in patients receiving enalapril or amlodipine were compared with those receiving these drugs along with atorvastatin. Memory and psychomotor functions of 12 healthy volunteers were also evaluated and compared with those of the patients at respective time periods. Statistical Analysis : Student's t test, Wilcoxon Signed Rank test, and Mann Whitney U test were used to compare the pre- and post-treatment scores of memory and psychomotor functions in various groups. Statistical significance was considered at P<0.05. Results : A statistically significant improvement in scores of memory and psychomotor functions was observed in both healthy volunteers (P=0.009 and P=0.016) and hypertensive patients (P=0.008 and P=0.031) throughout the study period. Memory and psychomotor function in hypertensive patients remained significantly inferior to those of healthy volunteers (P=0.01 and P=0.018). There was no significant difference in the scores of memory and psychomotor functions between patients receiving atorvastatin and those not receiving this drug. Conclusion : Atorvastatin, at 10 mg/day dose, does not have any significant effect on memory and psychomotor functions in hypertensive patients treated with enalapril or amlodipine.
  4,616 18 6
EDITORIAL
Newer diagnostics for detection of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis
G Nataraj
October-December 2011, 57(4):267-269
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.90072  PMID:22120852
  4,431 31 -
LETTERS
Low-dose aspirin and preeclampsia prevention
S Wiwanitkit, V Wiwanitkit
October-December 2011, 57(4):350-350
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.90094  PMID:22120871
  4,292 15 3
CASE REPORTS
Leiomyosarcoma of inferior vena cava
SA Jadhav, VS Atluri, R Prajapati, RR Satoskar
October-December 2011, 57(4):332-334
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.90087  PMID:22120864
Malignancy arising from the blood vessels is a very rare finding in daily clinical practice. In addition, the finding can often be misdiagnosed and ill-treated. These tumors usually go unnoticed unless it has metastasized to distant tissues. Among these rare tumors, leiomyosarcoma is the most common. It mostly arises in the inferior vena cava (IVC). Clinical signs and symptoms are very vague. Usually it is often misdiagnosed as an abscess cavity in the liver or primary hepatic malignancy (when present at level II) or as a thrombus in the IVC. Radiological investigations are the key to proper diagnosis. Depending upon the exact location, further treatment options vary. Generally, it is believed that level II and level III tumors are amenable to surgery followed by chemo or radiotherapy. We present a rare case of leiomyosarcoma of IVC at level II being diagnosed with proper radiological investigations and its management with further stress on offering chemo-radiotherapy after its surgical removal as compared to only surgery performed earlier. This case report will throw some light on the proper management of such rare tumors in terms of their exact diagnosis and treatment in order to prolong patient survival.
  3,612 16 2
GRAND ROUND CASE
An unusual cause of hyperglycemia
R Lal, LA Loomba-Albrecht, AA Bremer
October-December 2011, 57(4):343-346
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.90092  PMID:22120869
  3,258 17 1
CASE SNIPPETS
Atypical presentation of joint infection by an unusual organism
SP Roy, AP Singla, SK Jain, ON Nagi
October-December 2011, 57(4):338-339
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.90089  PMID:22120866
  3,231 15 -
LETTERS
Primary tubercular liver abscess rupture leading to parietal wall abscess: A rare disease with a rare complication
G Gupta, S Nijhawan, P Katiyar, A Mathur
October-December 2011, 57(4):350-352
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.90095  PMID:22120872
  3,191 12 1
GUEST EDITORIAL
Managing non-ketotic childhood hyperglycemia
V Shivane, A Lila, T Bandgar, N Shah
October-December 2011, 57(4):270-271
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.90073  PMID:22120853
  3,028 21 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Severe and critical cases of H1N1 influenza in pregnancy: A chinese perspective
J Liu, Q Li, H Cui, C Liu
October-December 2011, 57(4):298-301
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.90079  PMID:22120858
Context : In 2009, an outbreak of A/H1N1 influenza spread worldwide. Following the start of winter in Liaoning province in China, the number of pregnant women infected with influenza increased significantly. Some of them developed respiratory failure and multiple organ failure. Aims : The aim of this study was to determine the high-risk factors associated with the development of critical illness in the hospitalized pregnant women with A/H1N1 infection. Settings and Design : This retrospective cohort study was carried out in the tertiary care obstetric department of a large general hospital. Materials and Methods : The clinical data of H1N1 pregnant women hospitalized from November 2009 to January 2010 was reviewed. We classified these cases into severe and critical grades according to H1N1 influenza treatment guidelines. We selected maternal age, gestational age, and the time interval between symptom-onset and hospital admission as related factors of critical illness. Statistical Analysis : Logistic regression analyses to determine the relevance and importance of factors significantly associated with critical illness. Results : Eighteen cases of H1N1 influenza pregnant women were admitted. Ten pregnant women were severe cases and eight pregnant women were critical cases. The maternal age (OR=0.979, 95% CI: 0.749~1.279)and the time interval between symptom-onset and hospital admission (OR=1.41, 95% CI: 0.917~2.169) were not found to be risk factors for critical cases. The significant risk factor associated with critical illness is gestational age (OR=53.726, 95% CI: 131.165~2477.918). The risk varied by weeks of gestation, with an odds ratio of 1.034 (95% CI: 0.968-1.106) during the first trimester, 9.667 (95% CI: 0.750-124.59) during the second trimester, and 87 (95% CI: 6.750-1121.39) during the third trimester. Conclusions : Gestational age is associated with the risk of developing critical infection. The risk increases with increasing weeks of gestation.
  2,852 18 2
STUDENTS CORNER
Improving the rates of cadaver organ donation in a tertiary care transplant centre: A role for medical students and ancillary staff
SS Patwardhan, GV Kulkarni
October-December 2011, 57(4):347-349
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.90093  PMID:22120870
  2,757 15 -
CASE SNIPPETS
A diagnostic dilemma: Arteriovenous malformation of spermatic cord presenting as irreducible inguinal swelling
MA Joshi, M Gadhire, A Dhake, M Patil
October-December 2011, 57(4):339-340
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.90090  PMID:22120867
  2,540 14 -
Online since 12th February '04
2004 - Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Official Publication of the Staff Society of the Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, India
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