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   2012| January-March  | Volume 58 | Issue 1  
    Online since February 25, 2012

 
 
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LOOKING BACK
Contributions of ancient Indian physicians - Implications for modern times
J Singh, MS Desai, CS Pandav, SP Desai
January-March 2012, 58(1):73-78
PMID:22387655
Ayurveda traces its origins to contributions of mythological and real physicians that lived millennia earlier. In many respects, Western medicine also had similar origins and beliefs, however, the introduction of anatomical dissection and progressive application of scientific evidence based practices have resulted in divergent paths taken by these systems. We examined the lives, careers, and contributions made by nine ancient Indian physicians. Ancient texts, translations of these texts, books, and biographical works were consulted to obtain relevant information, both for Indian traditional medicine as well as for Western medicine. Ayurveda has retained principles enunciated by these physicians, with minor conceptual advances over the centuries. Western medicine separated from ancient Indian medicine several hundred years ago, and remains the foundation of modern medicine. Modern medicine is evidence based, and randomized clinical trials (RCTs) are the gold standard by which efficacy of treatment is evaluated. Ayurvedic medicine has not undergone such critical evaluation to any large extent. The few RCTs that have evaluated alternative medical treatment recently have shown that such therapy is no better than placebo; however, placebo treatment is 30% effective. We suggest that foreign domination, initially by Mughals, and later by the British, may have contributed, in part, to this inertia and protracted status quo.
  18,019 21 1
DRUG REVIEW
Fluticasone furoate: A new intranasal corticosteroid
R Kumar, D Kumar, A Parakh
January-March 2012, 58(1):79-83
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.93260  PMID:22387656
Intranasal corticosteroids are recommended as one of the first-line therapies for the treatment of allergic rhinitis (AR), especially when associated with nasal congestion and recurrent symptoms. Fluticasone furoate is a novel enhanced-affinity glucocorticoid for the treatment of AR approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2007 and recently introduced in India. Fluticasone furoate nasal spray is indicated for the treatment of the symptoms of seasonal and perennial AR in patients aged two years and older. This review summarizes the clinical data on fluticasone furoate nasal spray and discusses its role in the management of AR. Important attributes of fluticasone furoate include low systemic bioavailability (<0.5%), 24-h symptom relief with once-daily dosing, comprehensive coverage of both nasal and ocular symptoms, safety and tolerability with daily use, and availability in a side-actuated device that makes medication delivery simple and consistent. With these properties, fluticasone furoate nasal spray has the potential to enhance patient satisfaction and compliance, thus making it a good choice amongst available intranasal steroids.
  11,301 44 4
REVIEW ARTICLES
Strategies to reduce medication errors in pediatric ambulatory settings
S Mehndiratta
January-March 2012, 58(1):47-53
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.93252  PMID:22387648
Worldwide, a large number of children are prescribed drugs on an outpatient basis. Medication errors are fairly common in these settings. Though this matter has been well recognized as a cause of concern, limited data is available from ambulatory settings. Medication errors can be defined as errors that may occur at any step, starting from ordering a medication, to dispensing, administration of the drug and the subsequent monitoring. The outcomes of such errors are variable and may range between those that are clinically insignificant to a life-threatening event. The reasons for these medication errors are multi-factorial. Children are unable to administer medications to themselves and also require a strict weight-based dosing regimen. The risk factors associated with medication errors include complex regimens with multiple medications. Overdosing and under-dosing (10-fold calculation errors), an increased or a decreased frequency of dosing or an inappropriate duration of administration of the medication, are frequently detected errors. The lack of availability of proper formulations adds to the confusion. The low level of literacy among the caregivers can aggravate this problem. There is a lack of proper reporting and monitoring mechanisms in most ambulatory settings, hence these errors remain unrecognized and often go unreported. This article summarizes the current available literature on medication errors in ambulatory settings and the possible strategies that can be adopted to reduce the burden of these errors in order to improve child care and patient safety. Voluntary, anonymous reporting can be introduced in the healthcare institutions to determine the incidence of these errors.
  10,330 27 2
Emergence of viral hemorrhagic fevers: Is recent outbreak of crimean congo hemorrhagic fever in India an indication?
C Lahariya, MK Goel, A Kumar, M Puri, A Sodhi
January-March 2012, 58(1):39-46
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.93251  PMID:22387647
The emerging and re-emerging diseases are posing a great health risk for the last few years. One such category of diseases is viral haemorrhagic fevers (VHFs), which have emerged in the new territories, worldwide. Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) cases, for the first time in India, were reported from Gujarat, in January 2011. The emergence of diseases not reported earlier, pose great economic and social challenge, burden health system, and create panic reaction. Nonetheless, with recent experience in control of epidemic diseases, and advances in basic scientific knowledge; the public health community is better prepared for these unexpected events. This review provides information to physicians on CCHF for managing outbreak, and identifies public health measures to prevent emergence and re-emergence of VHFs (including CCHF) in future. The authors suggest that though, there are a few challenging and unanswered questions, the public health preparedness still remains the key to control emerging and re-emerging diseases. The countries where virus activities have been reported need to be prepared accordingly.
  9,624 19 3
VIEW POINT
National list of essential medicines of India: The way forward
S Manikandan, B Gitanjali
January-March 2012, 58(1):68-72
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.93258  PMID:22387654
Essential medicines lists have been shown to improve the quality and cost-effectiveness of health care delivery when combined with proper procurement policies and good prescribing practices. The Ministry of Health, Government of India revised the National List of Essential Medicines of India (NLEMI 2011) in June 2011, eight years after the last revision. The NLEMI 2011 contains 348 medicines and was prepared over one and a half years by 87 experts. Though there are some positive aspects to the list such as the documentation of a detailed description of the revision process, inclusion of many experts from various fields in the review committee, well written description of the essential medicines concept and others, a critical review of the list reveals areas of major and minor concerns. Improper medicine selection like the inclusion of a nearly obsolete medicine such as ether, an anesthetic agent; non-inclusion of pediatric formulations; spelling errors; and errors in the strengths of formulations diminishes the significance of the NLEMI 2011. In its present form, the NLEMI 2011 did not align with the Indian Pharmacopoeia, and the National Health Programs as well as the National Formulary of India 2010. Formatting errors, non-inclusion of an index page, syntax and spelling errors may also undermine the usefulness of the NLEMI 2011 as a reference material. An urgent revision of the NLEMI 2011 is suggested so as to avert misinforming the wider international and local readers.
  9,624 16 3
CASE REPORTS
Mesenteric fat necrosis after recent surgery causing bowel obstruction: A case report and review of the literature
BR Green, A Reddy, M Jha
January-March 2012, 58(1):54-56
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.93253  PMID:22387649
Mesenteric fat necrosis causing bowel obstruction is a rare occurrence with only one case reported in humans. It is due to accidental or surgical trauma to the adipose tissue with extracellular liberation of fat or enzymatic lysis of fat due to the release of lipases resulting in fibrosis. Preoperative imaging may often be misleading and fail to identify fat necrosis as the cause of bowel obstruction. As surgical intervention is the only suitable treatment option in cases of failed conservative treatment, the diagnosis is made postoperatively. There is no published advice on the management of mesenteric fat necrosis. We recommend safe operating techniques to minimize the risk of developing fat necrosis and its potential harmful consequences.
  8,642 17 1
REVIEW ARTICLES
Aliskiren, the first direct renin inhibitor for treatment of hypertension: The path of its development
M Jadhav, C Yeola, G Zope, A Nabar
January-March 2012, 58(1):32-38
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.93250  PMID:22387646
Standard treatments available today for treating hypertension is diuretics, β-blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEs), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), calcium channel blockers, a-blockers, vasodilators, and centrally acting drugs. It is difficult to achieve the optimized renin angiotensin aldosterone system suppression with currently available antihypertensive agents, because ACE inhibitors, ARBs, and diuretics all activate the compensatory feedback mechanism that increases renin release and increase plasma renin activity. The first orally active direct renin inhibitors (DRIs) were developed in 1980s, including enalkiren, remikiren, and zankiren. However, poor absorption from the gastrointestinal tract, less bioavailability (<2%), short half life, and low potency hindered the development of these compounds. Aliskiren is the first DRI for the treatment of hypertension. Aliskiren is designed through a combination of molecular modeling techniques and crystal structure elucidation. Aliskiren effectively reduces the blood pressure as a mono therapy as well in combination therapy.
  7,123 18 7
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
An epidemic outbreak of Vibrio Cholerae El Tor 01 serotype ogawa biotype in a Lalpur town, Jamnagar, India
HD Shah, VP Shah, AN Desai
January-March 2012, 58(1):14-18
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.93247  PMID:22387643
Background: On December 19, 2010, 57 cases of gastroenteritis were reported in the community health center of Lalpur town. A rapid response team was sent to investigate the outbreak on December 21, 2010. Aim: To identify the source, to institute control and prevention measures. Materials and Methods: The outbreak was confirmed using the previous Integrated Integrated Disease Surveillance Project (IDSP) data. Detailed history was taken, line listing of patients and house-to-house investigations were done. Environmental investigation and laboratory investigation of stool samples were also done. As the study was conducted during emergency response to the outbreak and was designed to provide information to orient the public health response, ethical approval was not required. Remedial measures were implemented. Results: Three hundred and thirty cases were reported during December 19, 2010 to January 2, 2011 in Lalpur town of Jamnagar district. Nineteen patients were found to be positive for Vibrio Cholerae 01 serotype ogawa biotype out of 117 stool samples. The mean age of patients was 24.23΁19.01 years. The outbreak had 1.88% attack rate with no mortality and 59.1% cases had to be admitted. Investigations revealed that the epidemic was waterborne. Ten leakages were found in the pipelines of the affected areas of Lalpur town near two riverbanks. Conclusion: Among identified gaps, delays in the initiation of the investigation of the epidemic and repairing of leakages were most important. In India, waterborne epidemics are usual occurrences during the year. In this scenario, the village health and sanitation committee and water board should follow guidelines, and monitoring of water sources, proper sewage disposal and sanitation measures should be undertaken.
  5,779 16 4
5HT 3 antagonists for prophylaxis of postoperative nausea and vomiting in breast surgery: A meta-analysis
AK Singhal, S Kannan, VS Gota
January-March 2012, 58(1):23-31
PMID:22387645
Background: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) are distressing adverse events following breast cancer surgery with an incidence of up to 80%. 5HT 3 antagonists are commonly employed as drugs of first choice for PONV although there is no clear evidence favoring one pharmacological approach over another. Aims: The objective of this meta-analysis is to compare the efficacy of 5HT 3 antagonists against all non-5HT 3 antagonism-based pharmacological approaches as a preemptive strategy for PONV in women undergoing breast surgery. Design: Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Materials and Methods: Literature search was conducted through PUBMED, reference lists, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials till June 2010 to identify eligible studies. Trials comparing 5-HT 3 antagonists with placebo or active controls for prophylaxis against PONV in women undergoing breast surgery were included. Two reviewers extracted the data independently. Methodological quality of each trial was assessed using Jadad score. Results: Nineteen trials were included. All trials were of good methodological quality (Jadad score >3). 5HT 3 antagonists were found superior to placebo [Odds ratio (OR)=0.18 (0.13-0.26)] or active controls [OR=0.65 (0.47-0.91)] in the prevention of PONV. 5HT 3 antagonists were also superior to placebo in preventing nausea alone [OR=0.51 (0.34-0.76)], vomiting [OR=0.31 (0.20-0.47)] and the use of rescue antiemetics [OR=0.18 (0.11-0.28)]. No significant difference was observed in the use of rescue antiemetics as compared to active controls [0.59 (0.19 to 1.86)]. Conclusion: 5HT 3 antagonists are superior to other pharmacological interventions for the prevention of PONV in patients undergoing breast surgery under general anesthesia.
  5,385 33 1
Is methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus involved in community acquired skin and soft tissue infections?: Experience from a tertiary care centre in Mumbai
RS Phakade, G Nataraj, SK Kuyare, US Khopkar, PR Mehta
January-March 2012, 58(1):3-7
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.93245  PMID:22387641
Background: To improve the empiric antimicrobial therapy of community-acquired (CA) skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), it is necessary to generate data on the current spectrum and susceptibility profile of associated bacteria. CA methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA MRSA) is increasingly being reported in SSTIs in India and globally. Aims: The present study was undertaken to determine the bacterial profile of CA-SSTIs, to know the contribution of MRSA in these infections, to determine inducible clindamycin resistance in S. aureus and to compare the resistance patterns of isolates from hospital-acquired (HA) SSTIs. Materials and Methods: Eight hundred and twenty patients with CA SSTIs were prospectively studied. Pus samples were cultured and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern determined. Inducible clindamycin resistance was detected by D-test. Laboratory records were analyzed retrospectively to generate data on HA SSTIs. Results: 619 isolates were recovered in CA-SSTIs, of which S. aureus (73%) and Streptococci (12%) were the most common. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (28%) and Acinetobacter spp (18%) were the predominant HA-SSTI pathogens. Susceptibility of CA S. aureus to antibiotics tested was, penicillin (6%), co-trimoxazole (20%), ciprofloxacin (37%), cefazolin (100%), erythromycin (84%), clindamycin (97%), gentamicin (94%) and fusidic acid (95%). No MRSA was found in CA SSTIs whereas 45% of HA S. aureus strains were methicillin-resistant. HA strains demonstrated significantly higher resistance as compared to their CA counterparts (P<0.001). D test was positive in 22% of CA S. aureus tested. Conclusions: In CA SSTIs, methicillin-susceptible S. aureus is the predominant pathogen. Penicillinase-resistant penicillins, clindamycin and erythromycin in that order can be used as suitable antimicrobials for empiric therapy. D test should be carried out routinely. No CA MRSA was detected in the present series.
  4,930 30 5
GUEST EDITORIAL
Gabapentin use in the prevention of succinylcholine-induced fasciculation and myalgia
ML Rayhill, MD Perloff
January-March 2012, 58(1):1-2
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.93244  PMID:22387640
  4,686 27 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Prophylactic use of gabapentin for prevention of succinylcholine-induced fasciculation and myalgia: A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study
CK Pandey, M Tripathi, G Joshi, ST Karna, N Singh, PK Singh
January-March 2012, 58(1):19-22
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.93248  PMID:22387644
Background: Succinylcholine is used for rapid-sequence induction of anesthesia. Fasciculations and myalgia are adverse effects. The pretreatment modalities prevent or minimize its adverse effects. Aims: The present study is designed to evaluate the efficacy of gabapentin on the incidence of fasciculation and succinylcholine-induced myalgia. Settings and Design: The study was conducted at a tertiary care teaching hospital in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled manner. Materials and Methods: Patients of both genders undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly assigned to two groups. Patients in Group I (Gabapentin group) received 600 mg of gabapentin orally 2 h prior to surgery and patients in Group II (placebo group) received matching placebo. Anesthesia was induced with fentanyl 3 μg/kg, thiopentone 3-5 mg/kg and succinylcholine 1.5 mg/kg. All patients were observed and graded for fasciculations by a blinded observer and patients were intubated. Anesthesia was maintained with oxygen in air, sevoflurane and intermittent vecuronium bromide. After completion of surgery, neuromuscular blockade was reversed. A blinded observer recorded myalgia grade at 24 h. Patients were provided patient-controlled analgesia with fentanyl for postoperative pain relief. Statistical analysis: Demographic data, fasciculation grade, fentanyl consumption, and myalgia grade were compared using student t test and test of proportions. Results: The study included 76 American Society of Anesthesiologists' Grade I or II patients of either gender undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. But only 70 patients completed the study. Results demonstrated that the prophylactic use of gabapentin significantly decreases the incidence and the severity of myalgia (20/35 vs. 11/35) (P<0.05) and decreases fentanyl consumption significantly in the study group (620+164 μg vs. 989+238 μg) (P<0.05) without any effects on the incidence and severity of fasciculations. Conclusions: Prophylactic use of gabapentin 600 mg in laparoscopic cholecystectomy decreases the incidence and severity of myalgia and fentanyl consumption.
  4,560 27 6
Effect of cardiopulmonary bypass on tissue injury markers and endothelial activation during coronary artery bypass graft surgery
S Nair, K Iqbal, M Phadke, UE Jadhav, J Khandekar, JMS Khandeparkar
January-March 2012, 58(1):8-13
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.93246  PMID:22387642
Background: Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is done either using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) or without using CPB (OPCAB). But, recently, reports have shown that CPB is associated with increased postoperative morbidity because of the involvement of many systems. Aims: The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the influence of the technique of surgery on various tissue injury markers and the extent of endothelial activation in patients undergoing CABG and OPCAB coronary revascularization. Settings and Design: This study was conducted at a tertiary healthcare center during the period May 2008 to December 2009. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective nonrandomized blinded study. The activities of Creatine Phosphokinase (CK) and its isoenzyme CK-MB, Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), levels of cardiac Troponin I, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-I) and systemic nitric oxide production were assessed. Statistical analysis: All the results were expressed as Mean±SD. P value ≤0.05 was considered significant. The statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS Version 11.5-computer software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results: The surgical trauma had elevated CK, CK-MB and Troponin I in both the groups and further elevation was seen in the CABG group in comparison to OPCAB (P<0.001). The Troponin I concentrations showed an increase from 0.11±0.02 preoperatively to 6.59±0.59 (ng/ml) at 24 h (P<0.001) compared to the OPCAB group. Mean serum levels of sVCAM-1 increased significantly after surgery in both the groups (P<0.02). To determine serum nitric oxide (NO) production, NO2 and NO3 (stable end products of NO oxidation) were analyzed which also increased significantly at 24 h in both the groups. But the increase was not significant at 48 h in both the groups compared to the preoperative value in our study. Conclusion: The present study indicates that, despite comparable surgical trauma, the OPCAB significantly reduces tissue injury. The overall pattern of endothelial activation after OPCAB is significantly lower than that after CABG. This may contribute to improved organ function, and improved postoperative recovery.
  4,514 34 4
VIEW POINT
Development of botanical principles for clinical use in cancer: Where are we lacking?
RJ Poojari, AG Patil, VS Gota
January-March 2012, 58(1):63-67
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.93257  PMID:22387653
Development of drugs from plant sources (botanicals) for the treatment of cancer has not been successful in India, despite a plethora of medicinal plants and an equal number of experiments demonstrating anti-cancer activity of plant principles in vitro. There are several pitfalls in our approach to botanical drug development. Foremost is the lack of industry-academia collaborations in this field. Research goals in Indian academic institutions are generally short-term and mostly aimed at fulfilling the minimum requirements of a doctoral/MD or MPharm thesis. Secondly, quality assurance of herbal formulations is difficult to achieve and good manufacturing practices are expensive to implement. This could introduce bias during the biological evaluation of botanicals. A systematic approach covering a wide range of investigations including but not limited to mechanistic studies, potential herb-drug interactions, pharmacokinetics and bioavailability could help in the optimization of herbal formulations in the preclinical stage of development before they can be considered for clinical trials. Government initiatives such as Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathic have encouraged research in these areas, but are insufficient to promote focused and aggressive evaluation of potential herbs. Particular emphasis should be given to clinical pharmacokinetics, drug interactions and clinical trials in specific cancers for the evaluation of dosage, safety, efficacy and concomitant use with chemotherapy. Only such policies can result in meaningful evaluation of botanicals for cancer therapy.
  4,190 18 3
CASE SNIPPETS
Paralysis caused by a large carbohydrate meal
S Vilarinho, MD Siegel
January-March 2012, 58(1):60-61
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.93255  PMID:22387651
  3,968 20 -
CASE REPORTS
Anti-myelin-associated glycoprotein polyneuropathy coexistent with CREST syndrome
E Andreadou, V Zouvelou, N Karandreas, C Kilidireas
January-March 2012, 58(1):57-59
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.93254  PMID:22387650
Clinical involvement of the peripheral nervous system in the calcinosis cutis, raynaud's phenomenon, esophageal dismotility, sclerodactyly and telangiectasia (CREST) variant of systemic sclerosis occurs infrequently and is characterized by axonal degeneration due to necrotizing vasculitis. We report a female patient with a known history of CREST syndrome, which developed a slowly progressive, distal symmetric demyelinating sensorimotor polyneuropathy (PN), with tremor and ataxia as prominent features, compatible with anti-myelin associated glycoprotein (MAG) PN. The diagnosis of PN was established by the presence of monoclonal immunoglobulin M anti-MAG antibodies (Thin-Layer Chromatography, Western Blot and enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay). Given the evidence that in CREST activation of T-helper cells is observed and that anti-MAG antibodies, despite the fact that they are T-cell-independent, may be influenced by an increase in T-helper function, the coexistence of these two rare autoimmune disorders in the same patient may not be incidental but related to the underlying immunological mechanisms involved.
  3,265 14 1
LETTERS
Organophosphate mumps- Additional mechanism
S Senthilkumaran, RG Menezes, S Sweni, P Thirumalaikolundusubramanian
January-March 2012, 58(1):84-84
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.93261  PMID:22387657
  2,997 17 -
CASE SNIPPETS
Falciparum malaria troubling neurosurgeons
NI Kamali, MF Huda, VK Srivastava
January-March 2012, 58(1):61-62
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.93256  PMID:22387652
  2,445 15 1
LETTERS
Methotrexate - Controversially yours
RV Lohiya
January-March 2012, 58(1):86-86
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.93264  PMID:22387659
  2,204 12 -
Lessons learnt from evaluation of the orientation program for new surgical residents using objective structured clinical examination-Based assessment
JS Pandya, SM Bhagwat, SL Kini
January-March 2012, 58(1):85-85
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.93263  PMID:22387658
  2,045 14 -
Authors' Reply
RV Lohiya, SA Sangle
January-March 2012, 58(1):84-84
  1,513 10 -
Online since 12th February '04
2004 - Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Official Publication of the Staff Society of the Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, India
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow