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   2012| April-June  | Volume 58 | Issue 2  
    Online since June 14, 2012

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Current trends in the pharmacotherapy of diabetic retinopathy
B Kumar, SK Gupta, R Saxena, S Srivastava
April-June 2012, 58(2):132-139
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.97176  
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the most debilitating disorders of microvasculature of the retina and one of the leading causes of vision loss among the working class worldwide. At present, intravitreal anti-inflammatory (corticosteroids) and anti-angiogenesis (anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor) agents are being used as wide options for the pharmacotherapy of DR and diabetic macular edema (DME). Anti-inflammatory agents (Triamcinolone acetonide and other agents) have shown evidence-based clinical benefits in various randomized clinical trials for the treatment of DR and DME, and also shown improvement in best corrected visual acuity. However, direct intravitreal injections are associated with serious side-effects like cataract and elevation of Intra Ocular Pressure. Despite this, corticosteroid therapy has been effective for DR and DME, therefore current focus is on the development of novel intravitreal steroid delivery devices that release a small quantity over a prolonged period of time. In addition to corticosteroids, anti-angiogenic agents are found to be effective for the treatment of DR and DME. The most popular target of these agents is the subfamily of proteins known as VEGF, whose over-expression is believed to play a role in numerous diseases including DR and Age-related Macular Degeneration. Intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin® ) and Ranibizumab (Lucentis® ) are gaining popularity as a clinical adjunct to panretinal photocoagulation in patients with proliferative DR. Moreover, Lucentis has been recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for macular edema following retinal vein occlusion. Further, systemic agents (specially, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and anti-hypertensive agents) have shown beneficial results in reducing the progression of DR. In conclusion, it can be stated that for the present scenario systematic use of available pharmacotherapy as an adjunct to laser photocoagulation, which is gold standard therapy, can be a useful tool in the prevention of vision loss from DR and related disorders. This article summarizes the up-to-date developments in the pharmacotherapy of DR. Method- Literature search was done on online database, Pubmed, Google Scholar, clinitrials.gov and browsing through individual ophthalmology journals and leading pharmaceutical company websites.
  16 11,444 58
CASE REPORTS
Cases of human fascioliasis in India: Tip of the iceberg
J Ramachandran, SSR Ajjampur, A Chandramohan, GM Varghese
April-June 2012, 58(2):150-152
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.97180  
This report presents two cases of human fascioliasis from different states in India. Although only few cases of human fascioliasis have been reported from India previously, both these cases were encountered within a span of three months at this tertiary care centre. Case 1 had significant symptoms with episodes of fever, abdominal pain and eosiniphilia and underwent multiple diagnostic procedures before the correct diagnosis was reached. Case 2, who had few symptoms, had fascioliasis diagnosed with minimal evaluation. These different presentations seen at two ends of the clinical spectrum of disease along with findings of peripheral eosinophilia, and radiological findings led to a presumptive diagnosis that was then confirmed by microscopic examination of bile. Morphometric analysis of ova from these cases was suggestive of infestation with F. gigantica or a F. gigantica-like hybrid. Both patients were treated with triclabendazole which was imported from Geneva. The need to be aware of the possibility of occurrence of this disease and the inclusion of drugs used for treating the disease, in the Indian drug list, should be emphasized.
  8 6,239 22
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Influence of age and gender on presentation of symptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism
VN Shah, SK Bhadada, A Bhansali, A Behera, BR Mittal, V Bhavin
April-June 2012, 58(2):107-111
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.97171  
Background: The geographical difference in presentation of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is known. However, there is sparse literature on the influence of age and gender on presentation of PHPT. Aim: To analyze the effect of age and gender on presentation of symptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism. Setting and Design: This is a retrospective analysis of data from the primary hyperparathyroidism registry of a north Indian tertiary care teaching institute. Materials and Methods: Analysis of 184 histopathologically proven PHPT patients registered between March 1990 and March 2010 from a single centre of north India. PHPT patients were divided into three different age groups i.e. children and adolescents less than 25 years, adults 25-49 years, and ≥ 50 years. Clinical presentations, biochemical parameters and parathyroid weight were compared between different age groups and gender using appropriate statistical methods. Results: Mean age of patients was 38.5±13.8 years with female: male ratio of 7:3. Rickets as presenting manifestations were seen in one child and adolescent each. Prevalence of renal stones (P=0.03) and gall stones (P=0.02) was higher in the adult groups compared to the younger and older. There was no difference in bone pain (P=0.7), fracture (P=0.3), osteitis fibrosa cystica (P=0.2), fatigue (P=0.6) and other symptoms among different age groups. There was no difference in serum calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 25 (OH) D levels among different age groups, however, as expected alkaline phosphatase was higher in adolescents compared to adults (P=0.03). Bone pain and muscle aches (P<0.001), fracture (P=0.04), osteitis fibrosa cystica (P=0.01), and gall stones (P=0.03) were more common among women while renal stones (P=0.05) and pancreatitis (P=0.02) were common in men. Serum calcium and phosphate levels were similar in either sex but parathyroid hormone (iPTH) level was higher among women (P=0.02). Parathyroid adenoma weight was higher in older compared to young but did not reach to a level of statistical significance. Conclusion: Age and gender have substantial influence on presentation of PHPT. Bone pain and rickets were common in children and adolescents while renal stones in adults. Women have more severe disease as musculoskeletal manifestations are common and iPTH levels are also higher compared to men.
  8 5,611 17
Self-medication practice among undergraduate medical students in a tertiary care medical college, West Bengal
I Banerjee, T Bhadury
April-June 2012, 58(2):127-131
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.97175  
Background: Self-medication is a widely prevalent practice in India. It assumes a special significance among medical students as they are the future medical practitioners. Aim: To assess the pattern of self-medication practice among undergraduate medical students. Settings and Design: Tertiary care medical college in West Bengal, India. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted among the undergraduate medical students. Results: Out of 500 students of the institute, 482 consented for the study and filled in the supplied questionnaire. Fourteen incomplete questionnaires were excluded and the remaining 468 analyzed. It was found that 267 (57.05%) respondents practiced self-medication. The principal morbidities for seeking self-medication included cough and common cold as reported by 94 students (35.21%) followed by diarrhea (68 students) (25.47%), fever (42 students) (15.73%), headache (40 students) (14.98%) and pain abdomen due to heartburn/ peptic ulcer (23 students) (8.61%). Drugs/ drug groups commonly used for self-medication included antibiotics (31.09%) followed by analgesics (23.21%), antipyretics (17.98%), antiulcer agents (8.99%), cough suppressant (7.87%), multivitamins (6.37%) and antihelminthics (4.49%). Among reasons for seeking self-medication, 126 students (47.19%) felt that their illness was mild while 76 (28.46%) preferred as it is time-saving. About 42 students (15.73%) cited cost-effectiveness as the primary reason while 23 (8.62%) preferred because of urgency. Conclusion: Our study shows that self-medication is widely practiced among students of the institute. In this situation, faculties should create awareness and educate their students regarding advantages and disadvantages of self-medication.
  8 23,813 51
Reporting quality of multivariable logistic regression in selected Indian medical journals
R Kumar, A Indrayan, P Chhabra
April-June 2012, 58(2):123-126
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.97174  
Background: Use of multivariable logistic regression (MLR) modeling has steeply increased in the medical literature over the past few years. Testing of model assumptions and adequate reporting of MLR allow the reader to interpret results more accurately. Aims: To review the fulfillment of assumptions and reporting quality of MLR in selected Indian medical journals using established criteria. Setting and Design: Analysis of published literature. Materials and Methods: Medknow.com publishes 68 Indian medical journals with open access. Eight of these journals had at least five articles using MLR between the years 1994 to 2008. Articles from each of these journals were evaluated according to the previously established 10-point quality criteria for reporting and to test the MLR model assumptions. Statistical Analysis: SPSS 17 software and non-parametric test (Kruskal-Wallis H, Mann Whitney U, Spearman Correlation). Results: One hundred and nine articles were finally found using MLR for analyzing the data in the selected eight journals. The number of such articles gradually increased after year 2003, but quality score remained almost similar over time. P value, odds ratio, and 95% confidence interval for coefficients in MLR was reported in 75.2% and sufficient cases (>10) per covariate of limiting sample size were reported in the 58.7% of the articles. No article reported the test for conformity of linear gradient for continuous covariates. Total score was not significantly different across the journals. However, involvement of statistician or epidemiologist as a co-author improved the average quality score significantly (P=0.014). Conclusions: Reporting of MLR in many Indian journals is incomplete. Only one article managed to score 8 out of 10 among 109 articles under review. All others scored less. Appropriate guidelines in instructions to authors, and pre-publication review of articles using MLR by a qualified statistician may improve quality of reporting.
  6 3,233 17
DRUG REVIEW
Regadenoson
GM Bengalorkar, K Bhuvana, N Sarala, TN Kumar
April-June 2012, 58(2):140-146
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.97177  
Single-photon emission computerized tomography for myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is a non-invasive technique. MPI is performed by subjecting the patient to exercise or by using a pharmacological stress agent. Regadenoson is a selective A 2A adenosine receptor agonist used when MPI with exercise is contraindicated. It binds to the A 2A receptor and stimulates adenylate cyclase, resulting in increased cAMP, which phosphorylates protein kinase A thereby opening the ATP-dependant potassium channels leading to hyperpolarization in the coronary vascular smooth muscle. After a single bolus dose of regadenoson 400 μg, a peak plasma concentration (C max ) of 13.6 ng/mL is attained in 1-4 min, with a terminal half-life of 2 h. It has a quick onset, short duration sufficient enough for hyperemic response, with comparable efficacy to adenosine, but with fewer side-effects. The adverse effects of this drug are dyspnea, headache, flushing, chest pain and atrioventricular block. Regadenoson is used for MPI in patients with co-morbid conditions like mild-to-moderate reactive airway disease, obstructive lung disease and renal impairment.
  5 5,963 21
LETTERS
Calcifying nested stromal epithelial tumor of the liver - an unusual tumor of uncertain histogenesis
RK Ghodke, PA Sathe, BM Kandalkar
April-June 2012, 58(2):160-162
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.97228  
  3 2,852 13
Hypothyroidism - Gait matters
SA Sangle, RV Lohiya, DR Sharma, N Bote
April-June 2012, 58(2):159-159
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.97183  
  2 3,514 13
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
A meta-analysis comparing the safety and efficacy of azithromycin over the alternate drugs used for treatment of uncomplicated enteric fever
NA Trivedi, PC Shah
April-June 2012, 58(2):112-118
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.97172  
Background: Drug-resistant typhoid fever is a major clinical problem globally. Emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) S. Typhi has complicated therapy by limiting treatment options. Objectives: A meta-analysis was planned to determine the strength of evidence supporting use of azithromycin over the alternate drugs available for treatment of uncomplicated typhoid fever. Materials and Methods: Studies were identified using electronic database such as MEDLINE and other data at the National Library of Medicine assessed using PUBMED search engine as well as Cochrane Clinical Trial Register. Randomized control trials (RCTs) comparing azithromycin with chloramphenicol, fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins in culture-proven enteric fever were included. Data was extracted and methodological quality was assessed. Risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals was estimated for the dichotomous outcomes and mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence was estimated for continuous data. Primary outcomes studied were clinical failure (CF), microbiological failure, and relapse. Results: A total of seven RCTs involving 773 patients met with our inclusion criteria. In comparison to older fluoroquinolones, azithromycin is marginally better in reducing the chance of CF with RR 0.46 (95% CI 0.25-0.82), while in comparison to ceftriaxone, it significantly reduced the chance of relapse with RR 0.1 (95% CI 0.01- 0.76). There were no serious adverse events reported in any of the trials. Conclusion: Azithromycin can be recommended as a second-line drug in MDR typhoid fever, however, large trials involving pediatric age group patients are recommended to arrive at a definite conclusion.
  2 7,705 39
VIEW POINT
Will the proposed compensation guidelines for research-related injury spell the death knell for clinical research in India?
CS Pramesh, RA Badwe
April-June 2012, 58(2):156-158
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.97243  
The Indian Council of Medical Research and the Central Drugs Standards Control Organization of the Directorate General of Health Services of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare' draft guidelines for compensation of research-related injury have evoked strong responses from the clinical research community. All stakeholders, including academic researchers, teachers in medical colleges, the pharmaceutical industry and even members of Institutional Review Boards and Ethics Committees have expressed grave reservations about several clauses in the guidelines. Moreover, these two guidelines differ from each other in important areas, reiterating that more thought and discussion is necessary to refine the guidelines. We present an academic researcher's perspective of the guidelines and our views on how they will affect clinical research in the country. The paper covers the types of research-related injury that are entitled for compensation, controversies on whether injury resulting from standard care should be entitled for compensation, whether causality needs to be established as a prerequisite for eligibility for compensation and whether all forms of research should have mandatory provision for compensation. We also put forward the potential dangers of such recommendations, which could potentially be inducement for patients to participate in clinical research. Finally, we raise the philosophical issue of infringement of an individual's fundamental rights regarding what research he/she wishes to participate in. While these points are based on several formal and informal discussions with stakeholders from various fields of clinical research, the views expressed are the authors' own personal thoughts.
  2 2,889 14
CASE SNIPPETS
Complicated acute pancreatitis: The worst-case scenario
R Subhash, VA Iyoob, N Bonny
April-June 2012, 58(2):154-155
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.97182  
  1 4,503 13
EDITORIAL
JPGM 2007-12: The editor's report
SB Bavdekar
April-June 2012, 58(2):99-102
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.97169  
  1 3,746 23
LETTERS
Mitral stenosis in tuberous sclerosis: A case of dystrophic calcification
S Singla, M Bansal, A Agarwal
April-June 2012, 58(2):167-167
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.97192  
  1 2,162 11
A puzzling case of treatable dementia
SA Jabeen, AK Meena, KR Mridula, R Borgohain
April-June 2012, 58(2):162-163
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.97185  
  1 3,278 11
Topical ophthalmic solution in infantile hemangioma
AK Jha, SK Mallik, M Raihan
April-June 2012, 58(2):163-165
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.97187  
  1 3,335 17
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Computed tomography-based morphometric analysis of cervical pedicles in Indian population: A pilot study to assess feasibility of transpedicular screw fixation
AR Patwardhan, PS Nemade, SK Bhosale, SK Srivastava
April-June 2012, 58(2):119-122
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.97173  
Background: Cervical transpedicular screw fixation is safe and is probably going to be the gold standard for cervical spine fixation. However, cervical transpedicular screw use in the Asian population can be limited as the transverse diameter in this group of patients may not be adequate to accommodate the 3.5-mm pedicular screw thus injuring the vital structures located in the close proximity of the pedicles. Thus lateral mass fixation remains the mainstay of treatment. The present study evaluated the transverse cervical pedicle diameter of C2-C7 vertebrae in a pilot study in 27 Indian subjects using computed tomography (CT) imaging and evaluated the feasibility of transpedicular screw fixation in them. Aims: To evaluate the feasibility of transpedicular screw fixation in the Indian population. Settings and Design: The cervical pedicle diameter size differs between the Asian and non-Asian population. The authors studied the transverse pedicle diameter of the C2-C7 of the cervical spine in the Indian population using CT measurements. This cross-sectional study was carried out at a tertiary care centre for a period of four months from October 2010 to December 2010. Material and Methods: Measurements of cervical pedicles in the subjects were performed on the CT workstation from the CT images taken at 2.5-mm interval. The transverse pedicle diameter was defined as the outermost diameter of the pedicle, taken perpendicular to the axis of the pedicle at the narrowest point and measured in millimeters±0.1 mm. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics was used to represent percentage of transverse diameter of cervical pedicles less than 5 mm in male and female subjects at C2-C7 levels. Since there is no previous study done in India, we initiated the study with sample size of 27 as a pilot study. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software. Results: The mean transverse diameters of the cervical pedicles of C2, C3, C4, C5, C6 and C7 in males were 5.3, 5.3, 5.3, 5.6, 5.6 and 6.1 mm respectively and ranged between 5.3 to 6.1 mm. The mean transverse diameters of the cervical pedicles of C2, C3, C4, C5, C6 and C7 in females were 5.1, 4.6, 4.7, 4.7, 5.3 and 5.6 mm respectively and ranged between 4.6 to 5.6 mm. Between 2.1% and 55.7% of pedicles in our male population and between 5.5% and 74.3% pedicles in our female population was smaller than 5.0 mm in transverse diameter and thus cannot have fixation with a 3.5 mm screw using this technique. Conclusions: We found that the transverse pedicle diameter of cervical pedicles in the Indian subjects is smaller compared to the Western population. Although transpedicular screw fixation has stronger pullout strength compared to lateral mass fixation, its use must be considered carefully and individually. Preoperative CT evaluation is a must before transpedicular fixation in the cervical spine, especially in the Indian female population. As an option 2.7-mm screws can be devised for the Indian population giving a wider safety margin.
  1 4,119 19
CASE REPORTS
Swiss cheese ventricular septal defect with myocarditis - A rare coexistence in a neonate
AR Saboo, R Vijaykumar, S Malik, C Warke
April-June 2012, 58(2):147-149
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.97179  
Myocarditis is defined as acute inflammation of the myocardium, usually following a non-specific flu-like illness, and encompasses a wide range of clinical presentations ranging from mild or subclinical disease to heart failure. We report a 12-day-old healthy full-term neonate who presented with abrupt onset of congestive cardiac failure (CCF) following a viral prodrome. Examination revealed persistent sinus tachycardia, lymphocytosis, gross cardiomegaly, nonspecific electrocardiogram changes with echocardiography showing Swiss cheese ventricular septal defect (VSD). VSD alone very rarely presents as early-onset cardiac failure in the absence of other precipitating factors like anemia, sepsis, hypoglycemia etc. Myocarditis, however, can mimic VSD and can present as fulminant cardiac failure in an otherwise healthy newborn. Myocarditis is usually diagnosed based on circumstantial evidence such as a recent viral infection and the sudden onset of cardiac dysfunction while ruling out other diagnostic possibilities. Elevated troponin T level is one of the most crucial noninvasive diagnostic modalities. Several trials have concluded that levels >0.055 ng/ml are statistically significant for diagnosing myocarditis in children. In our case an abrupt onset of cardiac failure following a viral prodrome and markedly elevated cardiac troponin T without sepsis and in the presence of normal coronary anatomy clinched the diagnosis of myocarditis. An early and aggressive treatment for CCF along with regular long-term follow-up plays a key role in the management of myocarditis. Role of high-dose Intravenous immunoglobulin in myocarditis has been studied by many trials with different outcomes. This is the first case report showing coexistence of VSD with myocarditis in a neonate presenting as early-onset acute cardiac failure. The report highlights the importance of screening for myocarditis in all previously normal babies presenting primarily with cardiogenic symptoms even if a structural heart disease is coexistent early in life. A simplified algorithm for work-up of CCF in a neonate is proposed.
  - 3,425 14
CASE SNIPPETS
Atypical presentation of lung carcinoma
YS Kamath, P Gupta, KA Rao, SS Bhat
April-June 2012, 58(2):153-154
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.97181  
  - 2,764 12
ERRATUM
Erratum

April-June 2012, 58(2):158-158
  - 1,174 11
GUEST EDITORIAL
Chronic liver disease and skeletal health (hepatic osteodystrophy)
T Bandgar, V Shivane, A Lila, N Shah
April-June 2012, 58(2):103-106
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.97170  
  - 5,398 23
LETTERS
A sac in a shaking uncus
P Sandeep, A Cherian, T Iype, K Ayyappan
April-June 2012, 58(2):165-166
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.97188  
  - 2,235 10
Some embryological facts on ectopic liver tissue in the umbilical cord
L Rajgopal
April-June 2012, 58(2):166-166
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.97190  
  - 1,747 15
A case of Cryptosporidium infection in a child of celiac disease
N Pal, R Sharma, B Sharma, R Suman
April-June 2012, 58(2):160-160
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.97227  
  - 11,773 15
Online since 12th February '04
2004 - Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Official Publication of the Staff Society of the Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, India
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow