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   2013| April-June  | Volume 59 | Issue 2  
    Online since June 21, 2013

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLE
Changing trends in the management of hypotension following spinal anesthesia in cesarean section
JK Mitra, J Roy, P Bhattacharyya, M Yunus, NM Lyngdoh
April-June 2013, 59(2):121-126
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.113840  
Hypotension during cesarean section under spinal anesthesia remains a frequent scenario in obstetric practice. A number of factors play a role in altering the incidence and severity of hypotension. Counteracting aortocaval compression does not significantly prevent hypotension in most singleton pregnancies. Intravenous crystalloid pre-hydration is not very efficient. Thus, the focus has changed toward co-hydration and use of colloids. Among vasopressors, phenylephrine is now established as a first line drug, although there is limited data in high-risk patients. Though ephedrine crosses the placenta more than phenylephrine and can possibly cause alterations in the fetal physiology, it has not been shown to affect the fetal Apgar or neurobehavioral scores.
  24,746 68 2
CASE SNIPPETS
Beware of "hook effect" giving false negative pregnancy test on point-of-care kits
YK Yadav, U Fatima, S Dogra, A Kaushik
April-June 2013, 59(2):153-154
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.113838  
  22,849 16 2
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
An observational study of complications in chickenpox with special reference to unusual complications in an apex infectious disease hospital, Kolkata, India
AK Kole, R Roy, DC Kole
April-June 2013, 59(2):93-97
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.113811  
Background: Chickenpox can cause serious complications and even death in persons without any risk factors. Aims: To observe the different complications with special reference to unusual complications of chickenpox and their outcomes. Materials and Methods: The present study was a prospective observational study where 300 patients suffering from chickenpox were evaluated with special reference to unusual complications and outcomes. Results: The usual complications of chickenpox commonly observed were acute hepatitis in 30 (10%) and cerebellar ataxia in 22 patients (7.3%), whereas common unusual complications were acute pancreatitis in 45 (15%), hemorrhagic rash in 10 (3.3%), Guillain-Barrι syndrome in 4 (1.3%), disseminated intravascular coagulation in 4 (1.3%), necrotizing fasciitis in 4 (1.3%), and acute renal failure in 3 patients (1%). It had been observed that most of these unusual complications occurred in patients without any risk factor. A total of 18 patients (6%) died in this study and of them 12 patients (4%) died due to unusual complications. Conclusions: Compulsory childhood varicella vaccination including vaccination of risk groups and susceptible individuals are all essential to reduce the incidence of chickenpox, associated complications, and subsequent death.
  19,778 26 3
LETTERS
EEG cerebral dysrhythmia in non-epileptic individuals as an incentive for seeking online health consultation
T Meštrovic, O Ožegic, I Bujas
April-June 2013, 59(2):163-164
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.113819  
  13,414 1 -
DRUG REVIEW
Retapamulin: A newer topical antibiotic
D Dhingra, A Parakh, S Ramachandran
April-June 2013, 59(2):127-130
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.113842  
Impetigo is a common childhood skin infection. There are reports of increasing drug resistance to the currently used topical antibiotics including fusidic acid and mupirocin. Retapamulin is a newer topical agent of pleuromutilin class approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treatment of impetigo in children and has been recently made available in the Indian market. It has been demonstrated to have low potential for the development of antibacterial resistance and a high degree of potency against poly drug resistant Gram-positive bacteria found in skin infections including Staphylococcus aureus strains. The drug is safe owing to low systemic absorption and has only minimal side-effect of local irritation at the site of application.
  7,341 32 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Acquired von Willebrand syndrome: A rare disorder of heterogeneous etiology
P Kasatkar, K Ghosh, S Shetty
April-June 2013, 59(2):98-101
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.113816  
Context: Acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS) is a rare bleeding disorder that mimics the inherited form of von Willebrand disease (VWD) in terms of laboratory findings and clinical presentation. Aims: To study the etiology of acquired VWD. Settings and Design: The patients referred from various hospitals in and out of Mumbai were included in the study. Materials and Methods: Six patients with AVWS diagnosed at this center over the last 10 years were analyzed against 171 patients with inherited VWD. The differential diagnosis of AVWS was made based on reduced levels of von Willebrand antigen and von Willebrand ristocetin cofactor, decrease in ristocetin induced platelet aggregation, absence of correction in mixing studies with no prior history of bleeding problems and a negative family history for bleeding disorders. Results: In three patients, the disease was associated with systematic lupus erythematosus, out of which one was also associated with Kikuchi lymphadenitis and second with autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Fourth case was associated with hypothyroidism and fifth was a case of dermatitis and vitiligo. The last patient was a case of hemophilia A with Burkitts lymphoma, who developed autoantibodies to von Willebrand factor. Except two patients, all other patients responded to immune suppressive therapy with corticosteroids, while the patient with hypothyroidism responded to oral thyroxine. Conclusion: AVWS is a rare condition and may often be missed or diagnosed as inherited disease associated with heterogeneous disease conditions.
  6,245 34 1
LETTERS
A critical look at the ophthalmological preparations in the national list of essential medicines of India 2011
VB Prakash
April-June 2013, 59(2):159-160
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.113812  
  5,567 14 -
CASE REPORTS
Diffusion weighted MR imaging of 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin-induced leukoencephalopathy
BS Paul, G Singh, R Bansal, G Paul
April-June 2013, 59(2):135-137
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.113845  
A 55-year-old man treated with 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin for advanced sigmoid colon cancer presented with seizures, progressive gait and balance difficulties with frequent falls and slurring of speech. After three cycles of chemotherapy, brain magnetic resonance imaging using diffusion-weighted imaging clearly revealed the presence of high signal intensity in the deep white matter of the bilateral cerebral hemispheres, including the corpus callosum symmetrically. A diagnosis of acute leukoencephalopathy was made based on these findings. His clinical symptoms normalized after the discontinuation of the chemotherapy. Early detection of drug-induced leukoencephalopathy is important as the clinical symptoms can be reversed by early discontinuation of the causative drug. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging is a useful modality for the early detection and definitive diagnosis of this characteristic encephalopathy.
  4,924 23 4
CASE SNIPPETS
Low-grade Müllerian adenosarcoma with prominent decidualization, involving bilateral ovaries against a background of endometriosis: A diagnostic and treatment challenge
A Shah, B Rekhi, A Maheshwari, NA Jambhekar
April-June 2013, 59(2):149-152
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.113833  
  4,721 21 1
CASE REPORTS
Immature teratoma of the nose and paranasal sinuses masquerading as bilateral nasal polyposis: A unique presentation
SK Aggarwal, A Keshri, P Agarwal
April-June 2013, 59(2):138-141
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.113844  
Teratomas are tumors of multipotent cells derived from all three germ cell layers and recapitulate normal organogenesis. Teratomas are hypothesized to arise by misplacement of multipotent germ cells. Teratoma is usually developmental and sometimes congenital neoplasm which displays both solid and cystic components with gross and microscopic differentiation into a wide variety of tissues representative of all three germ layers-ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm. We are describing a case which was initially diagnosed as bilateral nasal polyposis clinically but histopathology report came out to be immature teratoma. This case is being reported to make aware all ENT surgeons of such unique presentation of sinonasal teratomas as such presentation of these tumors has not been reported in literature previously, and hence teratomas should be considered in the differential diagnosis of nasal polyposis in future.
  4,370 14 1
EDITORIAL
Chickenpox: Docile or deadly?
R Soman, S Madan
April-June 2013, 59(2):91-92
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.113808  
  4,353 18 -
CASE REPORTS
Aspergilloma coexisting with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: A rare occurrence
N Kumar, M Mishra, A Singhal, J Kaur, V Tripathi
April-June 2013, 59(2):145-148
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.113841  
Fungal ball (mycetoma/aspergilloma) is a saprophytic fungal infection that colonizes pre-existing lung cavities. Reported literature suggests its development in cystic lesions/cavitation associated with tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, bronchiectasis, lung abscess, and cavitating neoplasm to name a few. Coexistence of aspergilloma with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) has not been reported in literature so far, to the best of our knowledge. We hereby report the case of a 55-year-old female with IPF having fungal ball.
  4,336 21 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Transcription activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 metalloproteinase genes and their tissue inhibitor (TIMP-2) in acute coronary syndrome patients
J Dabek, J Glogowska-Ligus, B Szadorska
April-June 2013, 59(2):115-120
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.113836  
Background: Acute coronary syndromes (ACS) are a consequence of coronary vessel atherosclerosis and they are a leading cause of death in industrialized countries. One of the ACS causative factors is the deranged ratio equilibrium of the matrix metalloproteinase/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (MMPs/TIMPs). Aims: Assessment of transcriptional activity of metalloproteinase genes using Human Genome-U133A oligonucleotide microarrays and selection of candidate genes differentiating ACS patients from healthy subjects and finally, QRT-PCR (quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction) confirmation of the results. Settings and Design: The study involved 67 ACS patients, admitted on a consecutive basis, to the Cardiology Clinic as well as 24 healthy subjects (control). Materials and Methods: Ribonucleic acid isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells was analyzed by QRT-PCR. Transcriptional activity of the analyzed gene was assessed with TaqMan gene expression assays. Statistical Analysis: U Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the results. Results: Homogeneity of the investigated group was assessed through hierarchical clusterization whereas the nine genes differentiating ACS patients from healthy persons were selected using the Bland-Altman technique. Among these genes three (platelet derived growth factor D, NUAK family SNF1-like kinase 1 and peroxisomal biogenesis factor 1) showed decreased transcriptional activity whereas the remaining six genes (MMP-2 and MMP-9, CDK5RAP3, transmembrane BAX inhibitor motif containing 1, adenylate cyclase-associated protein 1 and TIMP-2) were increased. MMP-2, MMP-9 and TIMP-2 were further characterized by QRT-PCR. Conclusions: The obtained results permit to conclude that the increased expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 metalloproteinases and their tissue inhibitor (TIMP-2) is responsible for disturbed equilibrium of the metalloproteinase/tissue inhibitors system and as a consequence, for destabilization of atherosclerotic plaque and occurrence of the acute coronary syndrome in the investigated group of patients.
  4,112 21 4
HIV counseling and testing in a tertiary care hospital in Ganjam district, Odisha, India
M Dash, S Padhi, S Sahu, I Mohanty, P Panda, B Parida, MK Sahoo
April-June 2013, 59(2):110-114
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.113831  
Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) counseling and testing (HCT) conducted at integrated counseling and testing centers (ICTCs) is an entry point, cost-effective intervention in preventing transmission of HIV. Objectives: To study the prevalence of HIV among ICTC attendees, sociodemographic characteristics, and risk behaviors of HIV-seropositive clients. Materials and Methods: It was hospital record-based cross-sectional study of 26,518 registered ICTC clients at a tertiary care hospital in Ganjam district, Odisha, India over a 4-year period from January 2009 to September 2012. Results: A total of 1732 (7.5%) out of 22,897 who were tested for HIV were seropositive. Among HIV-seropositives, 1138 (65.7%) were males, while 594 (34.3%) were females. Majority (88.3%) of seropositives were between the age group of 15-49 years. Client-initiated HIV testing (12.1%) was more seropositive compared to provider-initiated (2.9%). Among discordant couples, majority (95.5%) were male partner/husband positive and female partner/wife negative. Positives were more amongst married, less educated, low socioeconomic status, and outmigrants (P<0.0001). Risk factors included heterosexual promiscuous (89.3%), parent-to-child transmission 5.8%, unknown 3.1%, infected blood transfusion 0.8%, homosexual 0.5%, and infected needles (0.5%). Conclusions: There is need to encourage activities that promote HCT in all health facilities. This will increase the diagnosis of new HIV cases. The data generated in ICTC provide an important clue to understand the epidemiology in a particular geographic region and local planning for care and treatment of those infected with HIV and preventive strategies for those at risk especially married, young adults, and outmigrants to reduce new infections.
  3,938 18 -
LETTERS
Body packer syndrome
B Sureka, MM Kumar, A Mittal, S Mukul
April-June 2013, 59(2):166-166
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.113824  
  3,894 15 -
CASE REPORTS
Acute myocardial infarction: Can it be a complication of acute organophosphorus compound poisoning?
P Joshi, P Manoria, D Joseph, Z Gandhi
April-June 2013, 59(2):142-144
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.113843  
Organophosphorus compounds are used as pesticides and represent a common cause of poisoning in developing countries including India due to their widespread availability and use. Toxicity due to these agents can affect many organs including heart. Here, we report a case of acute organophosphorus poisoning (parathion), followed by acute myocardial infarction; documented by clinical features, electrocardiographic changes, and elevated cardiac enzymes. Myocardial infarction has been rarely reported with organophosphorus compounds exposure, thus awareness of this complication can reduce morbidity and mortality.
  3,504 24 1
LETTERS
Cardiac surgery in patients with sickle cell disease
J Khandeparkar, M Porwal, V Mahajan
April-June 2013, 59(2):167-167
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.113827  
  3,138 19 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effect of fibromyalgia on bone mineral density in patients with fibromylagia and rheumatoid arthritis
MA Buyukbese, ON Pamuk, OA Yurekli, N Yesil
April-June 2013, 59(2):106-109
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.113825  
Objectives: Fibromyalgia (FM) may t cause a decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) because of decreased mobility. The condition is relatively frequent in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and RA patients with FM have more disability than those without FM. We evaluated the effect of FM on BMD and investigated the effect of FM on BMD in RA patients. Materials and Methods: We included age-matched 56 FM, 52 RA patients, and 37 healthy females as controls. Twenty three of all RA subjects met 1990 ACR FM criteria. Patients using the antiresorptive drugs, those on hormone replacement therapy, patients with thyroid or parathyroid dysfunction were excluded. Self-reported pain and fatigue severity, functional items of FM impact questionnaire were questioned in FM and RA patients. In all subjects, BMD of the lumbar spine and femur neck were determined by dual X-ray absorptiometry, and T-scores were recorded. Results: Self-reported pain and fatigue scores in FM subjects were significantly higher than in RA patients (P0<0.001). The mean lumbar spine and femur neck BMD and their T-scores in RA patients were significantly lower than in FM and control groups ( P values<0.01). There was no difference in BMD between FM subjects and the control group. BMD in RA patients with and without FM were similar ( P>0.05). There was a significant negative correlation between self-reported pain score and lumbar spine BMD in FM subjects (r=–0.41, P=0.006). Conclusions: In spite of functional disability, FM does not cause a decrease in BMD. The presence of FM in RA patients does not result in a change in BMD.
  3,116 19 -
Arterial bicarbonate may be a useful indicator of inadequate cortisol response in children with catecholamine resistant septic shock
MB Maralihalli, CT Deshmukh
April-June 2013, 59(2):102-105
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.113820  
Objective: To study the clinical and biochemical parameters that can predict cortisol insufficiency in children with septic shock. Design: prospective, observational study. Setting: tertiary health-care center. Patients/Subjects: Fifty children admitted with the catecholamine resistant septic shock to a tertiary health-care center. Materials and Methods: At the time of hospitalization all patients underwent detailed clinical evaluation including, history and physical examination, evaluation with the complete blood count, serum cortisol, renal function tests, liver function tests, prothrombin time activated partial thromboplastin time, arterial blood gas analysis, urine analysis, chest roentgenogram, ultrasonography of the abdomen and chest, urine, and blood culture for bacteria and fungi. Results: Out of 50 children with the catecholamine resistant septic shock, seven had adrenal insufficiency (serum cortisol <18 μg/dl). Of all parameters studied, only arterial bicarbonate at the time of admission to intensive care predicted adrenal insufficiency. On Receptor operative characteristic curve analysis, a bicarbonate level of 10.9 mEq/L had the best accuracy to predict adrenal insufficiency. Conclusion: Arterial bicarbonate may be used as a rapid test for provisional identification of adrenal insufficiency among children with the catecholamine resistant septic shock.
  3,114 20 -
CASE REPORTS
Cerebral demyelination in children with collagenous colitis
S Sankararaman, M Osman, G Wellman, SZ Hussain
April-June 2013, 59(2):131-134
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.113848  
Collagenous colitis (CC) is a form of microscopic colitis characterized by the presence of inflammatory infiltrate and subepithelial deposition of collagen in the colon and it is a rare condition with a predominant prevalence in the adult population. Only few cases have been reported in children. We report two children with the CC with concomitant neurological manifestations. Both cases demonstrated variable neurological symptoms clinically and significant cerebral demyelination. In both patients, the gastrointestinal manifestations drastically improved with a short course of prednisolone. However, the neurological symptoms were persistent and progressive. To the best of our knowledge, similar association has not been reported in children.
  2,592 18 -
CASE SNIPPETS
Primary squamous cell carcinoma of breast presenting as a cystic mass
CS Sheela, P Ramakant, G Shah, V Chandramohan, D Abraham, MJ Paul
April-June 2013, 59(2):155-156
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.113839  
  2,463 22 -
LETTERS
Autopsy findings and clinical diagnoses: A retrospective analysis of 641 cases in Greece
SA Papadodima, CI Evaggelakos, IN Sergentanis, CA Spiliopoulou
April-June 2013, 59(2):157-158
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.113809  
  2,332 13 1
Fulminant hepatic failure secondary to diffuse melanoma infiltration in a patient with a breast cancer history
E Bellolio, F Schafer, R Becker, MA Villaseca
April-June 2013, 59(2):164-166
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.113822  
  2,268 12 -
Sustained paranoid psychosis in a patient with mast cell leukemia and decreased serotonin level
CA Dasanu, LK Davis, F Bauer
April-June 2013, 59(2):161-162
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.113815  
  2,242 15 1
Lung cavities in an infant: Could it be only tuberculosis?
T Arun Babu, CGD Kumar
April-June 2013, 59(2):160-161
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.113813  
  2,220 11 -
A traveler with hypothermia: Twist in the tale
MP Cariappa
April-June 2013, 59(2):158-159
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.113810  
  2,113 14 -
Modern and postmodern medicine
JS Gandhi
April-June 2013, 59(2):167-168
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.113828  
  1,834 18 1
CASE SNIPPETS
Heartburn literally: Cardiac injury due to corrosive ingestion
A Aggarwal, A Bansal, A Dixit, V Sharma
April-June 2013, 59(2):152-153
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.113837  
  1,763 18 -
LETTERS
Clinical features scoring system for H1N1
Somsri Wiwanitkit, Viroj Wiwanitkit
April-June 2013, 59(2):162-163
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.113818  
  1,525 13 -
Authors' reply
Manu Kothari, Lopa Mehta
April-June 2013, 59(2):168-169
  1,485 14 -
Online since 12th February '04
© 2004 - Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Official Publication of the Staff Society of the Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, India
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow