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   2016| July-September  | Volume 62 | Issue 3  
    Online since July 18, 2016

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Assessing the reliability of microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests in malaria diagnosis in areas with varying parasite density among older children and adult patients in Nigeria
EE Ayogu, CV Ukwe, EO Nna
July-September 2016, 62(3):150-156
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.183167  PMID:27241807
Background: Current malaria control strategies are based on early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of malaria cases. The study aimed at comparing the performance of blood film microscopy and rapid diagnostic test (RDT) in Plasmodium falciparum detection in patients ≥6 years of age. Materials and Methods: A total of 154 consecutive pyretic patients aged 6-62 years were enrolled, sampled, and tested for malaria using RDT (first response) and microscopy by Giemsa staining. Genomic DNA was extracted after saponin hemolysis and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect Plasmodium falciparum. The endpoints were sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV). Results: Of the 154 patients, 80 (51.9%) had fever of ≥37.5°C. 106 (68.8%) were positive by First response® , 132 (85.7%) by microscopy, and 121 (78.6%) by PCR. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of first response compared to microscopic method were 82.2%, 100.0%, 100.0%, and 34.3%, respectively, while it was 75.4%, 75.0%, 95.3%, and 31.2%, respectively, when compared to PCR. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of the microscopic method compared to PCR were 92.3%, 50.0%, 90.91%, and 54.5%, respectively. There was a significant difference in the performance of RDT and film microscopy methods (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusion: Microscopy performed better and is more reliable than first response (RDT) in areas with low parasite density among patients ≥6 years of age. Rapid diagnostic tests could be useful in aareas with high parasite density as an alternative to smear microscopy
  3,899 28 -
Prevalence of burnout and its correlates among residents in a tertiary medical center in Kerala, India: A cross-sectional study
B Ratnakaran, A Prabhakaran, V Karunakaran
July-September 2016, 62(3):157-161
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.184274  PMID:27320952
Background and Rationale: Residents work in emotionally demanding environments with multiple stressors. The risk for burnout is high in them and it has significant negative consequences for their career. Burnout is also associated with consequences in terms of physical and mental health including insomnia, cardiovascular disease, depression and suicidal ideation. Thus, the study aimed to study the prevalence of burn out and its correlates among interns and residents at Government Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. Settings and Design: Cross Sectional Study at Government Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. Methods: It was a cross Sectional study of 558 interns and residents of Government Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. Data was collected which included the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory [CBI]which assesses burnout in the dimensions of Personal burnout, Work burnout and Patient related burnout, with a cut off score of 50 for each dimension. Age, sex, year of study, department the resident belonged to, or an intern, junior resident or a super speciality senior resident (resident doing super speciality course after their post graduate masters degree) were the correlates assessed. Statistical analysis: Univariate analysis. Results: More than one third of the participants were found to have burnout in one or another dimension of the CBI. Burnout was found to be the highest among the interns in the domains of personal burnout (64.05 %) and patient related burnout (68.62 %) and in junior residents for work related burnout (40%). Super specialty senior residents had the least prevalence of burnout in all three dimensions. Among the residents, Non Medical/Non Surgical residents had the least prevalence of burnout in all three dimensions, whereas surgical speciality residents had the highest of personal burnout (57.92 %) and Medical speciality residents had the highest patient related burnout (27.13%). Both medical and surgical specialty residents had equal prevalence of work burnout. The study also showed that as the number of years of residency increased, the burnout also increased in all three dimensions. A between gender difference in burnout was not noticed in our study. Conclusions: Burnout was found to be present in a large number of residents in our study. Nationwide studies and assessment of more correlates will be needed to understand this phenomenon and also for formulating measures for preventing and managing it.
  3,579 31 -
Emotions and coping of patients with head and neck cancers after diagnosis: A qualitative content analysis
A Jagannathan, S Juvva
July-September 2016, 62(3):143-149
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.184273  PMID:27320951
Background and Rationale: Patients suffering with head and neck cancers are observed to have a relatively high risk of developing emotional disturbances after diagnosis and treatment. These emotional concerns can be best understood and explored through the method of content analysis or qualitative data. Though a number of qualitative studies have been conducted in the last few years in the field of psychosocial oncology, none have looked at the emotions experienced and the coping by head and neck cancer patients. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five new cases of postsurgery patients of head and neck cancers were qualitatively interviewed regarding the emotions experienced and coping strategies after diagnosis. Results: Qualitative content analysis of the in-depth interviews brought out that patients experienced varied emotions on realizing that they were suffering from cancer, the cause of which could be mainly attributed to three themes: 1) knowledge of their illness; 2) duration of untreated illness; and 3) object of blame. They coped with their emotions by either: 1) inculcating a positive attitude and faith in the doctor/treatment, 2) ventilating their emotions with family and friends, or 3) indulging in activities to divert attention. Conclusion: The results brought out a conceptual framework, which showed that an in-depth understanding of the emotions - Their root cause, coping strategies, and spiritual and cultural orientations of the cancer survivor - Is essential to develop any effective intervention program in India.
  3,312 29 -
CASE REPORT
POEMS syndrome associated with plasmacytoma of the clivus: "Time discovers the truth"
J Thomas, BV Maramattom, J Varghese, PM Kuruvilla
July-September 2016, 62(3):205-207
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.166181  PMID:26469713
Polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal protein, and skin changes (POEMS) syndrome is characterized by the presence of a monoclonal plasma cell disorder, peripheral neuropathy, and one or more of the following features: Osteosclerotic myeloma, Castleman's disease (angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia), increased levels of serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), organomegaly, endocrinopathy, edema, typical skin changes, and papilledema. [1] Solitary plasmacytomas most frequently occur in the bone but can also be found in soft tissues (extramedullary plasmacytoma). [2] We report a case that showed a rare association of POEMS syndrome with a plasmacytoma of the clivus.
  3,128 98 -
EDITORIAL
From the desk of the new editor
Sunil Karande
July-September 2016, 62(3):141-142
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.186381  PMID:27424550
  3,059 25 -
NARRATIVE REVIEWS
Genomics era and complex disorders: Implications of GWAS with special reference to coronary artery disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cancers
R Pranavchand, MM Reddy
July-September 2016, 62(3):188-198
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.186390  PMID:27424552
The Human Genome Project (HGP) has identified millions of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and their association with several diseases, apart from successfully characterizing the Mendelian/monogenic diseases. However, the dissection of precise etiology of complex genetic disorders still poses a challenge for human geneticists. This review outlines the landmark results of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with respect to major complex diseases - Coronary artery disease (CAD), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and predominant cancers. A brief account on the current Indian scenario is also given. All the relevant publications till mid-2015 were accessed through web databases such as PubMed and Google. Several databases providing genetic information related to these diseases were tabulated and in particular, the list of the most significant SNPs identified through GWAS was made, which may be useful for designing studies in functional validation. Post-GWAS implications and emerging concepts such as epigenomics and pharmacogenomics were also discussed.
  3,001 22 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Severity and pattern of bone mineral loss in endocrine causes of osteoporosis as compared to age-related bone mineral loss
D Dutta, P Dharmshaktu, A Aggarwal, K Gaurav, R Bansal, N Devru, UC Garga, B Kulshreshtha
July-September 2016, 62(3):162-169
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.183170  PMID:27241810
Background: Data are scant on bone health in endocrinopathies from India. This study evaluated bone mineral density (BMD) loss in endocrinopathies [Graves' disease (GD), type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism (HypoH), hypergonadotropic hypogonadism (HyperH), hypopituitarism, primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT)] as compared to age-related BMD loss [postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO), andropause]. Materials and Methods: Retrospective audit of records of patients >30 years age attending a bone clinic from August 2014 to January 2016 was done. Results: Five-hundred and seven records were screened, out of which 420 (females:male = 294:126) were analyzed. A significantly higher occurrence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency was noted in T1DM (89.09%), HyperH (85%), and HypoH (79.59%) compared to age-related BMD loss (60.02%; P < 0.001). The occurrence of osteoporosis among females and males was 55.41% and 53.97%, respectively, and of osteopenia among females and males was 28.91% and 32.54%, respectively. In females, osteoporosis was significantly higher in T1DM (92%), HyperH (85%), and HypoH (59.26%) compared to PMO (49.34%; P < 0.001). Z score at LS, TF, NOF, and greater trochanter (GT) was consistently lowest in T1DM women. Among men, osteoporosis was significantly higher in T1DM (76.67%) and HypoH (54.55%) compared to andropause (45.45%; P = 0.001). Z score at LS, TF, NOF, GT, and TR was consistently lowest in T1DM men. In GD, the burden of osteoporosis was similar to PMO and andropause. BMD difference among the study groups was not significantly different after adjusting for body mass index (BMI) and vitamin D. Conclusion: Low bone mass is extremely common in endocrinopathies, warranting routine screening and intervention. Concomitant vitamin D deficiency compounds the problem. Calcium and vitamin D supplementations may improve bone health in this setting.
  2,491 40 -
BRIEF REPORTS
Maternal and socio-demographic determinants of low birth weight (LBW): A community-based study in a rural block of Assam
M Borah, R Agarwalla
July-September 2016, 62(3):178-181
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.184275  PMID:27320953
Background and Rationale: Low birth weight (LBW) leads to high neonatal and infant deaths. There is also high prevalence of childhood morbidities and mortalities that are consequences of LBW. Objectives: To find out the prevalence of LBW babies among the study population and to find out the effect of certain maternal and socio-demographic characteristics on birth weight. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in a rural block of Assam. Cluster sampling was done to choose 30 villages and 15 infants were selected randomly from each village to get a sample size of 450. Results: Prevalence of LBW was found to be 21.8%. Percentage of LBW babies was more among the teenage mothers (36%) and primipara mothers (27%). Maternal anemia [odds ratio (OR) 1.93; confidence interval (CI) 1.3-2.9], short interpregnancy interval (OR 3.93; CI 2.16-7.13), and teenage pregnancy (OR 3.93; CI 2.16-6.45) were found to be the independent risk factors associated with LBW of the babies. Discussion: The study findings indicated the high prevalence of LBW babies in rural areas of Assam and illiterate teenage mothers, grand multipara, anemic mothers, and short interpregnancy intervals were the important risk factors for LBW.
  2,389 32 -
CASE SERIES
Tracheal agenesis: A report of two cases
AV Desai, Sudha Rao, PR Shanbhag, M Rupani
July-September 2016, 62(3):202-204
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.186391  PMID:27424553
Tracheal agenesis is an extremely rare congenital anomaly involving the respiratory system. It is generally associated with anomalies of other systems. Antenatal diagnosis of this condition is difficult; therefore, it presents as a medical emergency in the labor room. Intubation in these babies is difficult. As many of these babies are born prematurely, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) adds to the management difficulties. Here, we describe two babies with this lethal anomaly and RDS where esophageal intubation and surfactant therapy proved beneficial. Furthermore, described are other associated anomalies.
  2,255 22 -
NARRATIVE REVIEWS
Regulatory role of prolactin in paternal behavior in male parents: A narrative review
F Hashemian, F Shafigh, E Roohi
July-September 2016, 62(3):182-187
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.186389  PMID:27424551
In all mammalian species, a combination of neuroendocrine and experiential factors contributes to the emergence of remarkable behavioral changes observed in parental behavior. Yet, our understanding of neuroendocrine bases of paternal behavior in humans is still preliminary and more research is needed in this area. In the present review, the authors summarized hormonal bases of paternal behavior in both human and nonhuman mammalian species and focused on studies on the regulatory role of prolactin in occurrence of paternal behavior. All peer-reviewed journal articles published before 2015 for each area discussed (parental brain, hormonal bases of maternal behavior, hormonal bases of paternal behavior and the role of prolactin in regulation of paternal behavior in nonhuman mammalian species, hormonal bases of paternal behavior and the role of prolactin in regulation of paternal behavior in humans) were searched by PubMed, Medline, and Scopus for original research and review articles. Publications between 1973 and 2015 were included. Similar to female parents, elevated prolactin levels in new fathers most probably contribute to child-caring behavior and facilitate behavioral and emotional states attributed to child care. Moreover, elevated parental prolactin levels after childbirth decrease the parents' libidos so that they invest more in parental care than in fertility behavior. According to the available clinical studies, elevation in the amounts of prolactin levels after childbirth in male parents are probably associated with paternal behavior observed in humans.
  2,067 21 -
BRIEF REPORTS
Mixed method approach for determining factors associated with late presentation to HIV/AIDS care in southern India
UN Yadav, V Chandrasekharan, V Guddattu, JRJH Gruiskens
July-September 2016, 62(3):173-177
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.183169  PMID:27241809
Background: Early diagnosis and treatment of human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is not only beneficial for the people living with HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (PLHA) but for the public and society as well. The study was aimed to identify the factors associated with late presentation to HIV/AIDS care. Materials and Methods: A facility-based unmatched case-control (1:1) study along with in-depth qualitative assessment was conducted at an ART Plus center at a district hospital, Udupi, southern India. A sample of 320 HIV patients (160 cases and 160 controls) was selected randomly between February and July 2014. Information regarding the patients were collected using an interviewer-administered semi-structured questionnaire. The qualitative component was assessed by in-depth interviews of 4 health professionals and 12 HIV-positive patients who were late for HIV care. The quantitative data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 15.0. The technique of thematic analysis was adopted for the analysis of qualitative data. Results: HIV-positive individuals who lived with families [odds ratio (OR) = 5.11], the patients having non-AIDS comorbidities [OR= 2.19, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09-4.40], the patients who perceived fear of losing family [OR = 5.00, 95% CI: 2.17-11.49], the patients who perceived fear that their status will be ruined in the community [OR= 2.00, 95% CI: 1.01-3.97], the patients who perceived fear of side effects of ART medications [OR = 4.3, 95% CI: 2.65-11.33], the patients who perceived fear of losing confidentiality [OR = 4.94, 95% CI: 2.54-9.59], the patients those who lack information available on government services [OR = 4.12, 95% CI: 2.127-8.005], and the patients who consumed alcohol [OR= 3.52, 95% CI: 1.83-6.77] were found to be independently associated with the late presentation to HIV/AIDS care after adjusting for all known confounders in a multivariable analysis. The qualitative summary showed that the perceived HIV stigma, inadequate health education, lack of awareness on available government services, psychological problems, alcohol use, asymptomatic conditions, and financial problems are major barriers to access care early for the late presenters. Conclusion: The identified factors can be utilized for the formulation of policies and interventions by promoting early diagnoses and addressing special concerns such as stigma, disclosure, health education, and awareness.
  1,938 33 -
IMAGE IN CLINICAL MEDICINE
Numerous linear metallic densities on radiograph: Gold threads
HJ Yun, HJ Lee
July-September 2016, 62(3):208-208
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.168267  PMID:26497399
  1,898 50 -
BRIEF REPORTS
Accessing completeness of pregnancy, delivery, and death registration by Accredited Social Health Activists [ASHA] in an innovative mHealth project in the tribal areas of Gujarat: A cross-sectional study
D Modi, J Patel, S Desai, P Shah
July-September 2016, 62(3):170-172
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.183168  PMID:27241808
Background: The Innovative Mobile-phone Technology for Community Health Operation (ImTeCHO) is a mobile-phone application that helps Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) in complete registration through the strategies employed during implementation that is linking ASHAs' incentives to digital records, regular feedback, onsite data entry, and demand generation among beneficiaries. Objective: To determine the proportion of pregnancies, deliveries, and infant deaths (events) being registered through the ImTeCHO application against actual number of events in a random sample of villages. Materials and Methods: Five representative villages were randomly selected from the ImTeCHO project area in the tribal areas of Gujarat, India to obtain the required sample of 98 recently delivered women. A household survey was done in the entire villages to enumerate each family and create a line-listing of events since January 2014; the line-listing was compared with list of women registered through the ImTeCHO application. The proportion of events being registered through the ImTeCHO application was compared against the actual number of events to find sensitivity of the ImTeCHO application. Result: A total of 844 families were found during household enumeration. Out of actual line-listing of pregnancies (N = 39), deliveries (N = 102), and infant deaths (N = 5) found during household enumeration, 38 (97.43%), 101 (99.01%), and 5 (100%) were registered by ASHAs through the ImTeCHO application. Conclusion: The use of mobile-phone technology and strategies applied during the ImTeCHO implementation should be upscaled to supplement efforts to improve the completeness of registration.
  1,832 32 -
VIEW POINT
Combined Bachelor of Medicine & Bachelor of Surgery-Doctor of Medicine (MBBS-MD) course to meet the national health manpower needs
MG Deo
July-September 2016, 62(3):199-201
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.184276  PMID:27320954
  1,659 27 -
LETTERS
A third reich approach by the Medical Council of India
BM Prakash, K Subodh, M Vivek
July-September 2016, 62(3):209-209
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.186393  PMID:27424554
  1,617 23 -
Coamplification with colocalization of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 and centromeric-17 signals on fluorescence in situ hybridization in invasive breast carcinoma: An exceedingly rare finding
T Pai, O Shetty, A Patil, T Shet, SB Desai
July-September 2016, 62(3):210-211
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.186394  PMID:27424555
  1,449 23 -
A case of monostotic Paget's disease
R Patnayak, S Rajasekhar, S Chintam, TC Kalawat, A Jena
July-September 2016, 62(3):211-212
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.186396  PMID:27424556
  1,431 24 -
Online since 12th February '04
2004 - Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Official Publication of the Staff Society of the Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, India
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow