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   2016| October-December  | Volume 62 | Issue 4  
    Online since October 20, 2016

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLES
The mysterious Zika virus: Adding to the tropical flavivirus mayhem
B Mishra, B Behera
October-December 2016, 62(4):249-254
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.191006  PMID:27763483
Until now, known as the demure cousin of dengue virus (DENV) inhabiting Africa, Zika virus (ZIKV) has reinvented itself to cause explosive epidemics captivating the Western hemisphere. The outbreak causing potential for ZIKV was realized when it made its way from Africa to Yap Island Micronesia in 2007, and in French Polynesia in 2013. From there, it moved on to Brazil in 2015. Now ZIKV has infected people in more than 33 countries in Central and South America and the Caribbean. Moreover the epidemiological and subsequent virological association with microcephaly cases in Brazil has prompted the World Health Organization to declare a public health emergency of International Concern. ZIKV shares not only its vector Aedes aegypti with dengue and chikungunya but also the geographic distribution and clinical features, which makes the laboratory confirmation mandatory for definitive diagnosis. The serological cross-reactivity with other Flavivirus, particularly with DENV makes laboratory confirmation challenging and will place additional burden on health systems to establish molecular diagnostic facilities. The evidence of additional nonvector modes of transmission, such as perinatal, sexual as well as transfusion has made preventative strategies more difficult. As ZIKV disease continues to mystify us with several unanswered questions, it calls for coordinated effort of global scientific community to address the ever growing arboviral threat to mankind.
  2,993 20 -
EDUCATION FORUM
Evolution of medical education in India: The impact of colonialism
Anshu , A Supe
October-December 2016, 62(4):255-259
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.191011  PMID:27763484
The cross-cultural exchanges between the people of India and their colonial rulers provides a fascinating insight into how these encounters shaped medicine and medical education in India. This article traces the history of how Indian medicine was transformed in the backdrop of colonialism and hegemony. It goes on to show how six decades after independence, we have have still been unable to convincingly shrug off the colonial yoke. India needs to work out a national medical curriculum which caters to our country's needs. A symbiotic relationship needs to be developed between the indigenous and allopathic systems of medicine.
  2,804 26 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
A case–control study of epidemiological factors associated with leptospirosis in South Gujarat region
KT Desai, F Patel, PB Patel, S Nayak, NB Patel, RK Bansal
October-December 2016, 62(4):223-227
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.188551  PMID:27763478
Background: The current study was planned to identify the epidemiological factors associated with leptospirosis in South Gujarat region using neighborhood controls. Methods: A total of 100 cases of leptospirosis occurred in South Gujarat region during the year 2012 were selected using simple random sampling. Three neighbors of the selected cases formed the controls (n = 300). A pretested structured questionnaire was used for data collection and data were analyzed using Epi Info 2007. Results: There was significant association of illiteracy (odds ratio [OR] =1.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.14–2.89), working in waterlogged fields during the reference season (OR = 4.6, 95% CI = 1.6–17.9), swimming/bathing in canals, open air defecation practices, storage of cow dung in or surrounding house, residence in the house made up of cow dung walls, households with access of food to rodents, injuries over hands/foot during the endemic season (OR = 3, 95% CI = 1.8–4.8), and history of skin disease during the endemic season (OR = 4.2, 95% CI = 2–8.5), with leptospirosis. Only 10% of individuals had gumboots for protection. A total of 83 (83%) cases and 240 (80%) controls had taken oral doxycycline chemoprophylaxis (P > 0.05). Cases had taken chemoprophylaxis for a median 4 weeks (range: 1–8) while controls had taken the same for median 8 weeks (range = 1–8) (P < 0.002). Conclusions: Although the commonly established factors appear to be associated with leptospirosis, the role of host factors seems to play a more important role in determining susceptibility to leptospirosis in exposed individuals.
  2,738 29 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Can angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors impact cognitive decline in early stages of Alzheimer's disease? An overview of research evidence in the elderly patient population
K Rygiel
October-December 2016, 62(4):242-248
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.188553  PMID:27763482
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease, in which an accumulation of toxic amyloid beta in the brain precedes the emergence of clinical symptoms. AD spectrum consists of presymptomatic, early symptomatic, and symptomatic phase of dementia. At present, no pharmacotherapy exists to modify or reverse a course of AD, and only symptomatic treatments are available. Many elderly patients, diagnosed with multiple medical conditions (such as cardiovascular diseases, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cerebrovascular diseases) are at increased risk of the development of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), AD, and vascular dementia. Studies have revealed reduced rates of cognitive decline, in elderly patients, who were treated with centrally active angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-Is) (that have an ability to cross the blood–brain barrier). This article reviews recently published literature, focused on possible protective influence of the centrally active ACE-Is, in the elderly population, at risk for cognitive decline.
  2,623 22 -
CASE SERIES
Wernicke's encephalopathy due to hyperemesis gravidarum: Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging characteristics
VV Ashraf, J Prijesh, R Praveenkumar, K Saifudheen
October-December 2016, 62(4):260-263
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.191005  PMID:27763485
Hyperemesis gravidarum-induced Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) is an underestimated condition. The purpose of this study is to improve its awareness and early diagnosis. We report five cases of WE secondary to hyperemesis gravidarum. Classic triad of encephalopathy, ataxia, and ocular signs was seen in four out of five patients. Two unusual features noted in this series were papilledema in one patient and severe sensory-motor peripheral neuropathy in one patient. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was abnormal in all the five patients, and high signal in medial thalamus and surrounding the aqueduct was the most common abnormality (5/5). Involvement of caudate nucleus was seen in two patients with severe psychosis, and two patients had bilateral cerebellar peduncle involvement. Median time delay between onset of neurological symptoms and diagnosis was 7 days. All patients improved with thiamine, but minor sequelae were seen in four patients at 12 months follow-up. One patient had a fetal demise. Hyperemesis gravidarum-induced WE is a common cause of maternal morbidity. Typical MRI findings of symmetric medial thalamic and periaqueductal signal changes may permit a specific diagnosis. A delay in diagnosis, therefore treatment, leads to worse prognosis.
  2,571 21 -
EDITORIAL
Quality research in Indian medical colleges and teaching institutions: The need of the hour
MS Tullu, S Karande
October-December 2016, 62(4):213-215
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.192666  PMID:27763476
  2,411 27 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Temporal variability of readmission determinants in postoperative vascular surgery patients
MJ Lin, F Baky, BC Housley, N Kelly, E Pletcher, JD Balshi, SP Stawicki, DC Evans
October-December 2016, 62(4):216-222
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.188548  PMID:27763477
Introduction: Clinical information continues to be limited regarding changes in the temporal risk profile for readmissions during the initial postoperative year in vascular surgery patients. We set out to describe the associations between demographics, clinical outcomes, comorbidity indices, and hospital readmissions in a sample of patients undergoing common extremity revascularization or dialysis access (ERDA) procedures. We hypothesized that factors independently associated with readmission will evolve from “short-term” to “long-term” determinants at 30-, 180-, and 360-day postoperative cutoff points. Methods: Following IRB approval, medical records of patients who underwent ERDA at two institutions were retrospectively reviewed between 2008 and 2014. Abstracted data included patient demographics, procedural characteristics, the American Society of Anesthesiologists score, Goldman Criteria for perioperative cardiac assessment, the Charlson comorbidity index, morbidity, mortality, and readmission (at 30-, 180-, and 360-days). Univariate analyses were performed for readmissions at each specified time point. Variables reaching statistical significance of P< 0.20 were included in multivariate analyses for factors independently associated with readmission. Results: A total of 450 of 744 patients who underwent ERDA with complete medical records were included. Patients underwent either an extremity revascularization (e.g. bypass or endarterectomy, 406/450) or a noncatheter dialysis access procedure (44/450). Sample characteristics included 262 (58.2%) females, mean age 61.4 ± 12.9 years, 63 (14%) emergent procedures, and median operative time 164 min. Median hospital length of stay (index admission) was 4 days. Cumulative readmission rates at 30-, 180-, and 360-day were 12%, 27%, and 35%, respectively. Corresponding mortality rates were 3%, 7%, and 9%. Key factors independently associated with 30-, 180-, and 360-day readmissions evolved over the study period from comorbidity and morbidity-related issues in the short-term to cardiovascular and graft patency issues in the long-term. Any earlier readmission elevated the risk of subsequent readmission. Conclusions: We noted important patterns in the temporal behavior of hospital readmission risk in patients undergoing ERDA. Although factors independently associated with readmission were not surprising (e.g. comorbidity profile, cardiovascular status, and graft patency), the knowledge of temporal trends described in this study may help determine clinical risk profiles for individual patients and guide readmission reduction strategies. These considerations will be increasingly important in the evolving paradigm of value-based healthcare.
  2,304 22 -
Chest radiographic manifestations of scrub typhus
KPP Abhilash, PR Mannam, K Rajendran, RA John, P Ramasami
October-December 2016, 62(4):235-238
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.184662  PMID:27763480
Background and Rationale: Respiratory system involvement in scrub typhus is seen in 20–72% of patients. In endemic areas, good understanding and familiarity with the various radiologic findings of scrub typhus are essential in identifying pulmonary complications. Materials and Methods: Patients admitted to a tertiary care center with scrub typhus between October 2012 and September 2013 and had a chest X ray done were included in the analysis. Details and radiographic findings were noted and factors associated with abnormal X-rays were analyzed. Results: The study cohort contained 398 patients. Common presenting complaints included fever (100%), generalized myalgia (83%), headache (65%), dyspnea (54%), cough (24.3%), and altered sensorium (14%). Almost half of the patients (49.4%) had normal chest radiographs. Common radiological pulmonary abnormalities included pleural effusion (14.6%), acute respiratory distress syndrome (14%), airspace opacity (10.5%), reticulonodular opacities (10.3%), peribronchial thickening (5.8%), and pulmonary edema (2%). Cardiomegaly was noted in 3.5% of patients. Breathlessness, presence of an eschar, platelet counts of <20,000 cells/cumm, and total serum bilirubin >2 mg/dL had the highest odds of having an abnormal chest radiograph. Patients with an abnormal chest X-ray had a higher requirement of noninvasive ventilation (odds ratio [OR]: 13.98; 95% confidence interval CI: 5.89–33.16), invasive ventilation (OR: 18.07; 95% CI: 6.42–50.88), inotropes (OR: 8.76; 95% CI: 4.35–17.62), higher involvement of other organ systems, longer duration of hospital stay (3.18 ± 3 vs. 7.27 ± 5.58 days; P< 0.001), and higher mortality (OR: 4.63; 95% CI: 1.54–13.85). Conclusion: Almost half of the patients with scrub typhus have abnormal chest radiographs. Chest radiography should be included as part of basic evaluation at presentation in patients with scrub typhus, especially in those with breathlessness, eschar, jaundice, and severe thrombocytopenia.
  2,290 28 -
An appropriately performed conventional blood culture can facilitate choice of therapy in resource-constrained settings-comparison with BACTEC 9050
PV Surase, G Nataraj, K Pattamadai, PR Mehta, AR Pazare, MC Agarwal, RN Nanavati
October-December 2016, 62(4):228-234
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.184958  PMID:27763479
Aims: Comparison of conventional blood culture with BACTEC 9050 for rate and time to detection of microorganisms. Settings and Design: A prospective study was carried out in a multispecialty tertiary care teaching hospital. Subjects and Methods: A total of 835 paired specimens (797 blood and 38 nonblood specimens) were collected and processed according to standard microbiological procedures by both conventional method as well as by BACTEC 9050 automated culture system. Clinical details of patients were recorded. Data were analyzed for time to detection and isolation rate by the two systems and compared. Results: Overall culture positivity for BACTEC 9050 and the conventional system was 32% and 19.88%, respectively. Eighty-five demonstrated concordant growth, 136 specimens were culture positive by BACTEC only, and 38 specimens were culture positive by conventional only. Twelve contaminants in BACTEC and nine contaminants in conventional system were detected. Using BACTEC 9050, higher isolation was observed for Acinetobacter spp., coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., and Candida spp. A total of 410 patients were on antimicrobial treatment and culture positivity was significantly higher with BACTEC 9050 (P < 0.0001). There was a significant difference in the mean time to detection with BACTEC 9050 recovering 86.8% of isolates within 48 h (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Although BACTEC 9050 demonstrated a significantly higher recovery of microorganisms from blood, an appropriately performed conventional blood culture can facilitate the choice of therapy.
  2,120 24 -
CASE REPORTS
Obturator hernia: An uncommon cause of small bowel obstruction
S Shreshtha
October-December 2016, 62(4):267-268
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.192663  PMID:27763487
A 70 year old lady presented to surgery emergency with small bowel obstruction without any obvious etiology. On exploration she was found to have an obstructed obturator hernia, which is a rare pelvic hernia with an incidence of 0.07-1.4% of all intra-abdominal hernias. Diagnosis is often delayed until laparotomy for bowel obstruction. Strangulation is frequent and mortality remains high (25%). Early diagnosis and surgical treatment contributes greatly to reduce the mortality and morbidity rates. A variety of techniques have been described, however surgical repair has not been standardized. It is an important diagnosis to be considered in elderly patients with intestinal obstruction.
  1,850 19 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Utility and limitations of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification technique in the detection of cytogenetic abnormalities in products of conception
D Saxena, M Agarwal, D Gupta, S Agrawal, V Das, SR Phadke
October-December 2016, 62(4):239-241
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.192664  PMID:27763481
Background and Introduction: Chromosomal abnormality is found in about half of first-trimester abortions. Karyotype is the gold standard to detect chromosomal abnormalities. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) offers advantage over karyotype in terms of lower failure rate, faster turnaround time, and much higher resolution than conventional karyotyping and found to be 98% concordant with conventional karyotype. Aim: We performed this study to look for the utility of MLPA in diagnosing chromosomal abnormalities in first-trimester abortions. Materials and Methods: MLPA using subtelomeric SALSA probe sets (P036 and P070) was used to detect cytogenetic abnormalities in products of conception in missed/spontaneous abortions. Results: A total of ninety abortus samples were analyzed by MLPA. Successful results were provided in (67) 74.4% of the cases while no conclusion could be drawn in 25.6% (23) of the cases. Fifty-five (82.1%) cases were cytogenetically normal and 17.9% (12) had some abnormality. Aneuploidy was detected in 8 (66.7%) cases, 3 (25%) had double-segment imbalance, and one (8.3%) had partial aneuploidy. Conclusion: We suggest that MLPA is a good substitute to traditional karyotype.
  1,770 20 -
CASE REPORTS
Stroke mimic: Perfusion magnetic resonance imaging of a patient with ictal paralysis
D Sanghvi, C Goyal, J Mani
October-December 2016, 62(4):264-266
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.192662  PMID:27763486
We present an uncommon case of clinically diagnosed window period stroke subsequently recognised on diffusion – perfusion MRI as ictal paralysis due to focal inhibitory seizures or negative motor seizures. This case highlights the importance of MRI with perfusion imaging in establishing the diagnosis of stroke mimics and avoiding unnecessary thrombolysis.
  1,749 21 -
LETTERS
Maternal infection, malnutrition, and low birth weight
MP Roy
October-December 2016, 62(4):270-271
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.191010  PMID:27763489
  1,591 20 -
Relapsing-remitting chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids syndrome in association with P/Q-type voltage-gated calcium channel antibody
D Dubey, M Devine, K Blackburn, W Warnack
October-December 2016, 62(4):269-270
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.191009  PMID:27763488
  1,473 21 -
Prevalence of burnout and its correlates among residents in a tertiary medical center in Kerala, India: A cross-sectional study
MD Al-Mendalawi
October-December 2016, 62(4):271-272
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.192665  PMID:27763490
  1,246 21 -
Online since 12th February '04
2004 - Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Official Publication of the Staff Society of the Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, India
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow