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   2017| July-September  | Volume 63 | Issue 3  
    Online since July 10, 2017

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Psychiatric disorders and obesity: A review of association studies
TM Rajan, V Menon
July-September 2017, 63(3):182-190
DOI:10.4103/jpgm.JPGM_712_16  PMID:28695871
Background: Inconsistent evidence exists regarding the strength, direction, and moderators in the relationship between obesity and psychiatric disorders. Aim: This study aims to summarize the evidence on the association between psychiatric illness and obesity with particular attention to the strength and direction of association and also the possible moderators in each postulated link. Materials and Methods: Systematic electronic searches of MEDLINE through PubMed, ScienceDirect, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar were carried out from inception till October 2016. Generated abstracts were screened for eligibility to be included in the review. Study designs that evaluated the strength of relationship between obesity and psychiatric disorders were included in the study. Quality assessment of included studies was done using the Newcastle–Ottawa checklist tool. Results: From a total of 2424 search results, 21 eligible articles were identified and reviewed. These included studies on obesity and depression (n = 15), obesity and anxiety (four) and one each on obesity and personality disorders, eating disorder (ED), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and alcohol use. Maximal evidence existed for the association between depression and obesity with longitudinal studies demonstrating a bidirectional link between the two conditions. The odds ratios (ORs) were similar for developing depression in obesity (OR: 1.21–5.8) and vice versa (OR: 1.18–3.76) with a stronger association observed in women. For anxiety disorders, evidence was mostly cross-sectional, and associations were of modest magnitude (OR: 1.27–1.40). Among other disorders, obesity, and EDs appear to have a close link (OR: 4.5). Alcohol use appears to be a risk factor for obesity and not vice versa but only among women (OR: 3.84). Conclusion: Obesity and depression have a significant and bidirectional association. Evidence is modest for anxiety disorders and inadequate for other psychiatric conditions. Gender appears to be an important mediator in these relationships.
  4,286 21 -
Writing a model research paper: A roadmap
MS Tullu, S Karande
July-September 2017, 63(3):143-146
DOI:10.4103/jpgm.JPGM_325_17  PMID:28695866
  3,841 136 -
Changing trend in bacterial etiology and antibiotic resistance in sepsis of intramural neonates at a tertiary care hospital
MP Roy, M Bhatt, V Maurya, S Arya, R Gaind, HK Chellani
July-September 2017, 63(3):162-168
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.201425  PMID:28272077
Background: Septicemia is an important cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. However, organized data on causative organisms and their resistant pattern are scanty from developing countries. The changing trend in causative organisms and their antibiotic resistance is yet to be documented in India. The present study examines the trends in bacterial profile and antibiotic resistance of the organisms causing sepsis in hospitalized neonates. Materials and Methods: A retrospective laboratory-based analysis of blood cultures obtained from Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi was done for the period of 1999–2014, divided into five phases. Results: A total of 4700 isolates were considered. Over time, Gram-negative organisms have replaced Gram-positives as frequent isolates. Initially, there was predominance of Klebsiella pneumoniae, then of Staphylococcus aureus which recently has been changed with coagulase negative-Staphylococcus and Acinetobacter. Growing resistance against the first and second line of drugs has been noted, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus. Conclusion: The etiological profile of neonatal sepsis has changed tremendously in the past 15 years. High resistance against common drugs necessitates continued surveillance and review of empirical antibiotic policy for neonatal sepsis. These steps are important to effectively curtail the surge of further antibiotic resistance.
  2,883 48 -
Does prehospital time affect survival of major trauma patients where there is no prehospital care?
SB Dharap, S Kamath, V Kumar
July-September 2017, 63(3):169-175
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.201417  PMID:28272069
Background: Survival after major trauma is considered to be time dependent. Efficient prehospital care with rapid transport is the norm in developed countries, which is not available in many lower middle and low-income countries. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of prehospital time and primary treatment given on survival of major trauma patients in a setting without prehospital care. Materials and Methods: This prospective observational study was carried out in a university hospital in Mumbai, from January to December 2014. The hospital has a trauma service but no organized prehospital care or defined interhospital transfer protocols. All patients with life- and/or limb-threatening injuries were included in the study. Injury time and arrival time were noted and the interval was defined as “prehospital time” for the directly arriving patients and as “time to tertiary care” for those transferred. Primary outcome measure was in-hospital death (or discharge). Results: Of 1181 patients, 352 were admitted directly from the trauma scene and 829 were transferred from other hospitals. In-hospital mortality was associated with age, mechanism and mode of injury, shock, Glasgow Coma Score <9, Injury Severity Score ≥16, need for intubation, and ventilatory support on arrival; but neither with prehospital time nor with time to tertiary care. Transferred patients had a significantly higher mortality (odds ratio = 1.869, 95% confidence interval = 1.233–2.561, P = 0.005) despite fewer patients with severe injury. Two hundred and ninety-four (35%) of these needed airway intervention while 108 (13%) needed chest tube insertion on arrival to the trauma unit suggesting inadequate care at primary facility. Conclusion: Mortality is not associated with prehospital time but with transfers from primary care; probably due to deficient care. To improve survival after major trauma, enhancement of resources for resuscitation and capacity building of on-duty doctors in primary centers should be a priority in countries with limited resources.
  2,856 42 -
Muscle mass changes in the critically ill patient: The role of imaging
P Kraniotis
July-September 2017, 63(3):147-148
DOI:10.4103/jpgm.JPGM_759_16  PMID:28695867
  2,292 45 -
Major trauma: What is important for the best outcome and survival?
TP Valentino
July-September 2017, 63(3):149-150
DOI:10.4103/jpgm.JPGM_752_16  PMID:28695868
  2,265 31 -
Prompt diagnosis of Scedosporium apiospermum soft tissue infection: Life-saving in a renal transplant recipient
R Ghosh, P Mishra, PK Maiti, A Debnandi
July-September 2017, 63(3):200-202
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.201415  PMID:28272067
Scedosporium apiospermum, an ubiquitous filamentous fungus, a known cause of mycetoma, is emerging as an opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised individuals. We report a case of painful foot abscess in a renal allograft recipient on immunosuppressive therapy, which was clinically diagnosed as a suppurative bacterial abscess. Pus was aspirated, which showed septate, branching hyphal elements and culture on Sabouraud's dextrose agar yielded S. apiospermum, which was identified based on its macroscopic and microscopic features. There are very few reports of scedosporiasis from India. High index of suspicion for unusual fungal infection helps in prompt etiological diagnosis in a transplant recipient and rapid management prevents further dissemination.
  2,078 26 -
Inter- and intra-observer variability of ultrasonographic arm muscle thickness measurement by critical care physicians
V Hadda, R Kumar, A Dhungana, MA Khan, K Madan, GC Khilnani
July-September 2017, 63(3):157-161
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.201412  PMID:28272064
Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess inter- and intra-observer variability of arm muscle thickness measured by critical care physicians using bedside ultrasonography (USG). Methodology: This prospective study included twenty patients admitted with sepsis. Three measurements of thickness of right arm muscles of each patient using B-mode USG were taken by two critical care fellows, independently. Intra- and inter-observer reliability was tested using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results: The mean 1st, 2nd, and 3rd measurements of muscle thickness recorded by observer 1 and 2 were 23.620 (±4.171) versus 23.840 (±3.849) mm, 23.235 (±3.620) versus 23.625 (±4.062) mm, and 24.125 (±4.098) versus 23.965 (±3.651) mm, respectively. The average muscle thickness measured by first and second observer was 23.660 (±3.834) mm and 23.810 (±3.674) mm, respectively. ICC for intra-observer variability for observer 1 and 2 was 0.964 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.924–0.985) and 0.949 (95% CI 0.892–0.978), respectively. ICC for inter-observer variability was 0.995 (95% CI 0.988–0.998). Conclusions: USG is a reliable tool for assessment of arm muscle thickness by critical care physicians.
  2,004 30 -
Unusual presentation of chondroblastoma mimicking Trevor's disease
Y Karkhur, A Tiwari, T Verma, L Maini
July-September 2017, 63(3):197-199
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.201414  PMID:28272066
Chondroblastoma is a benign bone tumor, represents 1%–2% of all primary bone tumors, typically seen in patients 10–25-year-old and more common in males. It occurs most frequently in the distal femur, proximal tibia, and proximal humerus. Soft tissue extension is extremely rare. Adjacent joints may develop effusions, but the tumor mass protruding into the joint has never been seen in case of chondroblastoma. We report a rare case of intra-articular chondroblastoma arising from proximal tibia in a 16-year-old boy and growing into the knee joint mimicking an intra-articular osteochondroma.
  1,940 29 -
Erythrophagocytosis by blasts in a case of de novo acute monoblastic leukemia with rare but characteristic t(8;16)
A Gupta, GK Reddy, M Goyal, MR Kasaragadda
July-September 2017, 63(3):194-196
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.201413  PMID:28272065
Erythrophagocytosis by leukemic blasts is a rare phenomenon. We report a case of a female diagnosed with acute monoblastic leukemia with leukemic blasts that were CD34 and CD117 negative, showing erythrophagocytosis, vacoulations, and a rare t(8;16) on bone marrow karyotype which is associated with a poor prognosis despite intensive chemotherapy. Meticulous bone marrow examination in such a scenario may point towards the presence of t(8;16) and help clinicians take a well-informed clinical decision.
  1,939 22 -
Evaluation of the association between a single-nucleotide polymorphism of bone morphogenetic proteins 5 gene and risk of knee osteoarthritis
AC Sharma, RN Srivastava, SR Srivastava, A Agrahari, A Singh, D Parmar
July-September 2017, 63(3):151-156
DOI:10.4103/jpgm.JPGM_450_16  PMID:28695869
Background: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic degenerative disorder probably affected by both genetic and environmental causes. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are bone-derived factors that can induce new bone formation. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of BMP5 gene alters the transcriptional activity of the BMP5 promoter that has been involved in OA susceptibility. This case–control study investigated the association of rs1470527 and rs9382564 SNP of BMP5 gene with susceptibility to knee OA (KOA). Materials and Methods: A total of 499 cases with radiographic KOA and 458 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Venous blood samples were obtained from all the cases as well as controls for polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results: The genotype distribution for rs1470527 and rs9382564 SNP was significantly different in cases and controls (P < 0.0001). Within both the SNPs of BMP5 gene, genotype CT and TT were significantly (P < 0.0001) associated with KOA as compared to the CC genotype. T allele of both the studied SNP was significantly associated with KOA (P < 0.0001). The allele frequencies of rs1470527 were 0.56(T) and 0.44(C) in cases and 0.33(T) and 0.67(C) in controls and in rs9382564 were 0.57(C) and 0.43(T) in cases and 0.71(C) and 0.29(T) in controls. Further in relation with clinical severity of OA, we observed signification association of TT genotype with both visual analog scale (P < 0.0001) and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities score (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Our results indicate significant association of rs1470527 and rs9382564 polymorphism of BMP5 gene with KOA.
  1,903 17 -
Pulmonary miliary papillary/micropapillary adenocarcinoma manifesting as carcinomatous encephalitis
P Vaideeswar, SS Nayak, A Verma, NA Goel
July-September 2017, 63(3):191-193
DOI:10.4103/0022-3859.201410  PMID:28272062
The histological pattern and the associated molecular aberrations have an important bearing in the prognosis of pulmonary adenocarcinomas. Papillary and micropapillary growth patterns with mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor and anaplastic large-cell lymphoma kinase rearrangements have an aggressive clinical course. We report one such cancer in a 49-year-old woman, where it assumed a miliary pattern in the lungs, and the patient presented with neurological symptoms related to carcinomatous encephalitis, an infrequent metastatic manifestation.
  1,826 31 -
Malignant orbital teratoma in a neonate: A clinicopathological case report
M VS Prakash, R Indira, M Radhakrishnan, G Leela
July-September 2017, 63(3):203-205
DOI:10.4103/jpgm.JPGM_629_16  PMID:28695872
Teratoma of the orbit is rare; very few cases have been published in literature. A case of orbital teratoma in a neonate is presented where the proptosis was massive enough to obscure the eyeball. Clinically, the diagnosis of teratoma was considered. As there was no possibility of salvaging the eye, exenteration of the orbit was done. Orbital teratomas are generally benign. Histopathological examination revealed the features of malignant teratoma.
  1,739 15 -
Deranged regulatory T-cells and transforming growth factor-β1 levels in type 1 diabetes patients with associated autoimmune diseases
N Kaur, RW Minz, SK Bhadada, D Dayal, J Singh, S Anand
July-September 2017, 63(3):176-181
DOI:10.4103/jpgm.JPGM_608_16  PMID:28695870
Aim: This study was designed to enumerate regulatory T-cells (Tregs) and estimate transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) levels in type 1 diabetic (T1D) patients with respect to disease duration and associated autoimmune diseases. Methods: One hundred and fifty patients and twenty healthy controls were recruited in the study. The patients were subcategorized into eight categories on the basis of disease duration (new onset [NO] and long standing [LS]) and associated diseases, i.e., celiac disease (CD) and autoimmune thyroid disease (AiTD). Treg cells were assessed as CD4+ CD25hi+, FOXP3+ cells and serum TGF-β1 levels were assessed by ELISA. Results: The frequency of Tregs and levels of TGF-β1 were significantly increased in the patients compared to the healthy controls. Among the different categories of the patients, no significant differences were seen for TGF- β1 levels, but for Tregs in patients with T1D and AiTD (P = 0.035). A significant correlation was also found between percentage count of Tregs and TGF-β1 levels in NO cases in all disease subcategories, but not in LS patients. Conclusion: Thus, there was an increased percentage of Tregs and serum levels of TGF-β1 in T1D patients, irrespective of the disease duration and associated autoimmune diseases. The significant correlation in these two parameters at the onset of the disease, but not in LS disease, indicates that the immunological milieu in LS autoimmune diseases is more complicated with disease-associated conditions such as prolonged hyperglycemia, insulin therapy, and/or continued gluten in diet. Treatment and modulation of these long-term complications for improving immunological parameters require further research.
  1,704 18 -
Powdered gloves: Time to bid adieu
R Baid, R Agarwal
July-September 2017, 63(3):206-206
DOI:10.4103/jpgm.JPGM_80_17  PMID:28695873
  1,612 16 -
Online since 12th February '04
2004 - Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Official Publication of the Staff Society of the Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, India
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow