Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
 Open access journal indexed with Index Medicus & ISI's SCI  
Users online: 12512  
Home | Subscribe | Feedback | Login 
About Latest Articles Back-Issues Articlesmenu-bullet Search Instructions Online Submission Subscribe Etcetera Contact
 :: Next article
 :: Previous article 
 :: Table of Contents
 ::  Similar in PUBMED
 ::  Search Pubmed for
 ::  Search in Google Scholar for
 ::Related articles
 ::  Article in PDF (12 KB)
 ::  Citation Manager
 ::  Access Statistics
 ::  Reader Comments
 ::  Email Alert *
 ::  Add to My List *
* Registration required (free) 

  IN THIS Article
 ::  Abstract
 ::  Introduction
 ::  Case report
 ::  Discussion
 ::  Acknowledgments
 ::  References
 ::  Article Figures

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded117    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 3    

Recommend this journal


Year : 1993  |  Volume : 39  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 159-61

Fibrolamellar carcinoma of the liver--an unusual presentation.

Dept. of Pathology, Seth GS Medical College, Parel, Bombay, Maharashtra.

Correspondence Address:
P Vaideeswar
Dept. of Pathology, Seth GS Medical College, Parel, Bombay, Maharashtra.

Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

PMID: 0008051651

Rights and PermissionsRights and Permissions

 :: Abstract 

Non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis was found at autopsy in a 17 year old male patient of fibrolamellar type of hepatocellular carcinoma with pericardial metastases. This had resulted in multiple embolic cerebral infarcts with long standing hemiplegia and later death due to acute left ventricular failure.

Keywords: Adolescent, Carcinoma, Hepatocellular, pathology,secondary,Case Report, Cerebral Infarction, pathology,Endocarditis, pathology,Endocardium, pathology,Heart Neoplasms, pathology,Human, Liver, pathology,Liver Neoplasms, pathology,Male, Mediastinal Neoplasms, pathology,secondary,Pericardium, pathology,Thrombosis, pathology,

How to cite this article:
Vaideeswar P, Pandit M J, Deshpande J R, Sivaraman A, Vora I M. Fibrolamellar carcinoma of the liver--an unusual presentation. J Postgrad Med 1993;39:159

How to cite this URL:
Vaideeswar P, Pandit M J, Deshpande J R, Sivaraman A, Vora I M. Fibrolamellar carcinoma of the liver--an unusual presentation. J Postgrad Med [serial online] 1993 [cited 2023 Sep 29];39:159. Available from:

  ::   Introduction Top

Fibrolamellar carcinoma (FLC) is a variant of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) occurring in young individuals especially females. As compared to the usual type of HCC, it has a better prognosis.

Non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis (NBTE) has been considered as an important cardiac valvular lesion capable of producing systemic embolization and occurs in association with a variety of malignant and non-neoplastic diseases[2],[4],[5],[6].

So far there have been no reports of NBTE in patients with FLC of liver. We are reporting a case of FLC associated with NBTE in a young hemiplegic.

  ::   Case report Top

A 17-year-old male with right-sided hemiplegia of 18 months duration presented with two days' history of abdominal pain followed by acute onset of breathlessness. The clinical impression was hemiplegia of unknown setiology with left ventricular failure and a hard irregular hepatomegaly. The patient died before any investigations could be performed.

On autopsy, the liver was found to be enlarged weighing 2.1 kg. The right lobe of the liver showed a large 10 x 8 cm well circumscribed mass with homogenous, grey white lobulated cut surface [Figure - 1]. Surrounding hepatic parenchyma was normal.

Microscopically, the tumour showed multiple nodules separated by broad interlacing band of fibrocollagenous tissue. The cells were large, polygonal with abundant granular eosinophilic cytoplasm and large hyperchromatic vesicular nuclei [Figure - 2]. Few of the cells showed ground glass cytoplasm. Staining for hepatitis B surface antigen (orcein stain) was negative.

There were two pericardial nodules, the gross and histologic features of which were similar to the primary liver tumour. Apart from the pericardial metastatic nodules, there was no evidence of any lymph node or organ metastasis.

The heart was minimally enlarged and weighed 250 gm. Both mitral and aortic valves showed the presence of large, bulky, firm and grey white vegetations [Figure - 3], producing marked narrowing of the orifices. The vegetations were composed mainly of fibrin and platelets along with few entrapped large cells resembling hepatic tumour cells [Figure - 4].

The brain showed multiple healed cystic infarcts involving the caudate nucleus, puamen, part of the insular cortex and occipital cortex in the left cerebral hemisphere. A diagnosis of fibrolamellar carcinoma of the liver and pericardial metastasis with associated non-bacterial thombotic endocarditis and multiple cystic cerebral infarcts was made.

  ::   Discussion Top

Fibrolamellar carcinoma of the liver is an unusual variant of hepatocellular carcinoma occurring in young individuals. It is a slow growing tumour with a high resectability rate and lack of association with cirrhosis or any other underlying liver abnormality[1]. The associated symptoms such as pain, malaise, hepatomegaly or epigastric mass are of a longer duration[6].

NBTE as defined by Rosen and Armstrong[2] is the bland deposition of platelets and fibrin in one or more than one non-inflammed non-ulcerated valve cusp. It is most frequently reported with mucin secreting adenocarcinoma of the gastrointestinal tract and lung carcinoma and is attributed to an underlying hypercoaguable state[3]. Its occurrence in malignant hepatic neoplasms is uncommon, though, in a series reported by Dicken and Chan[4], there was an increased incidence of NBTE in hepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

NBTE can complicate the natural history of cancer by producing vascular insufficiency and organ infarction and in some patients neurologic deficit is the only clinical evidence that the patient has NBTE, possibly due to an occult carcinoma[5].

In the present case, the patient had a long standing hemiplegia (18 months) with multiple old cystic cerebral infarcts. The underlying coagulopathy was induced by occult FLC, much before the appearance of clinical signs and symptoms related to heart and tumour. Later, the patient had abdominal and cardiac symptoms, produced by narrowing of mitral and aortic orifices by bulky vegetations.

The vegetations on the aortic valve showed mainly fibrin with few large cells similar to the hepatic tumour cells. Though Silver[7] mentions this as rare possibility, it has not been reported in larger series of cases of NBTE with malignancies.

Distant metastases are uncommon in FLC. In our case, apart from the two pericardial metastatic nodules, there was no macroscopic or microscopic evidence of tumour elsewhere.

  ::   Acknowledgments Top

We are grateful to the Dean, Seth GS Medical College and King Edward Memorial Hospital, Parel, Mumbai for granting permission to publish this article.

 :: References Top

1. Berman MA, Burnshaw JA, Sheahan DG. Fibrolamellar carcinoma of the liver: an immunohistochemical study of 19 cases and a review of literature. Human Pathol 1988; 19:784-794.  Back to cited text no. 1    
2.Rosen P, Armstrong D. Non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis in patients with malignant neoplastic disease. Am J Med 1973; 54:23-29.  Back to cited text no. 2    
3.Kapoor AS. Cancer and the Heart, 1st ed. New York: Springer Verlag; 1986, pp 267-268.  Back to cited text no. 3    
4.Dickens P, Chan ACL. Non-bacterial thrpmbotic endocarditis in Hong Kong Chinese. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1991; 115:359-361.  Back to cited text no. 4    
5.Rogers LR, Cho Eun-Sook, Kempin, Sanford, Pasner JB. Cerebral infarction from Non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis (clinical and pathological study including the effects of anti- coagulation). Am J Med 1987; 83:746-755.  Back to cited text no. 5    
6.Farhi DC, Shikes RH, Murari PJ, Silverberg SG. Hepatocellular carcinoma in young people. Cancer 1983; 52:1516-1525.  Back to cited text no. 6    
7.Silver MD. Infective endocarditis. In: Cardiovascular Pathology, vol 1, 1st ed. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1983, pp 517-550.   Back to cited text no. 7    


[Figure - 1], [Figure - 2], [Figure - 3], [Figure - 4]

This article has been cited by
1 Review of the clinicopathologic features of fibrolamellar carcinoma
Torbenson M
2 Factors associated with non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis: Case report and literature review
Eftychiou C, Fanourgiakis P, Vryonis E, Golfinopoulou S, Samarkos M, Kranidis A, Skoutelis A
JOURNAL OF HEART VALVE DISEASE. 2005; 14 (6): 859-862
3 Right-sided non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis in a chronic hemodialysis patient with Muir-Torre syndrome
Singhal S, Harty J, Lal S, et al.
CLINICAL NEPHROLOGY. 2001; 55 (4): 331-334


Print this article  Email this article
Previous article Next article
Online since 12th February '04
2004 - Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Official Publication of the Staff Society of the Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, India
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow