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Year : 2003  |  Volume : 49  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 55-60

Recent advances in the diagnosis of leishmaniasis.

Division of Clinical Microbiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi-110 029, India. , India

Correspondence Address:
S Singh
Division of Clinical Microbiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi-110 029, India.
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0022-3859.927

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 :: Abstract 

Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease caused by a haemoflagellate Leishmania. There are more than 21 species causing human infection. The infection is transmitted to humans through the bites of female sandflies belonging to 30 species. The disease manifests mainly in 3 forms: the visceral, the cutaneous and the mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. The diagnosis of visceral form is conventionally made by the demonstration of amastigotes of the parasite in the aspirated fluid from the bone marrow, the spleen, and rarely from the lymph nodes, or the liver. The parasite demonstration and isolation rates are rather poor from cutaneous and mucocutaneous lesions due to low parasite load and high rate of culture contamination. Recently several recombinant proteins have been developed to accomplish accurate diagnosis. Recombinant kinesin protein of 39 kDa called rK 39 is the most promising of these molecules. The antigen used in various test formats has been proved highly sensitive and specific for visceral leishmaniasis. It is useful in the diagnosis of HIV-Leishmania co-infection and as a prognostic marker. Molecular techniques targeting various genes of the parasite have also been reported, the PCR being the most common molecular technique successfully used for diagnosis and for differentiation of species.

Keywords: AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections, diagnosis,parasitology,Biological Markers, Diagnosis, Differential, HIV Infections, complications,Human, Leishmaniasis, diagnosis,

How to cite this article:
Singh S, Sivakumar R. Recent advances in the diagnosis of leishmaniasis. J Postgrad Med 2003;49:55-60

How to cite this URL:
Singh S, Sivakumar R. Recent advances in the diagnosis of leishmaniasis. J Postgrad Med [serial online] 2003 [cited 2023 Jun 4];49:55-60. Available from:

Leishmaniasis is a vector borne parasitic disease caused by a haemoflagellate, Leishmania spp. transmitted by the bite of infected phlebotomine sandfly. Depending on the causative species, it can manifest as Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL), Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis (MCL), Diffused Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (DCL) or Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL). Leishmaniasis is prevalent in at least 88 countries. More than 90 percent of the cutaneous cases occur in Afghanistan, Saudi Arabia, Algeria, Brazil, Iran, Iraq, Syria and Sudan; while more than 90 percent of visceral cases occur in India and Sudan. Mucocutaneous form is mostly found in Latin America.[1],[2] Approximately 350 million people live in the area of active parasite transmission. Though several animal reservoirs have been identified in different countries for leishmaniasis, no animal reservoir of the parasite has yet been identified in India. It is presumed that skin lesions of a late sequel of the visceral form called post-kala-azar-dermal leishmanisis (PKDL) act as reservoirs.[1],[2]

The clinical and epidemiological findings in various forms of leishmaniases are non pathognomonic and these can mimick several other conditions. Hence a laboratory diagnosis is required to confirm the clinical suspicion. The diagnostic tools used for each leishmanial syndrome viz. visceral, cutaneous, and mucocutaneous form vary but the gold standard in each case remains to be the demonstration and isolation of the parasite from appropriate tissues.

  ::   Parasitological diagnosis Top

The differential diagnosis for VL includes, among others, malaria, tropical splenomegaly syndrome schistosomiasis, cirrhosis with portal hypertension, African trypanosomiasis, milliary tuberculosis,  Brucellosis More Details, typhoid fever, bacterial endocarditis, histoplasmosis, malnutrition, lymphoma, and leukaemia. Similarly numerous primary and secondary skin diseases and conditions are frequently misdiagnosed as early lesions of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Some of the common conditions that should be differentiated from cutaneous leishmaniasis are tropical ulcers due to other causes, impetigo, infected insect bites, leprosy, lupus vulgaris, yaws, blastomycosis, and skin cancer.[1],[2] Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis is sequelae of new world cutaneous leishmaniasis and results from direct extension or hematogenous or lymphatic metastasis to the nasal or oral mucosa. Paracoccidioidomycosis, polymorphic reticulosis, Wegener’s granulomatosis, lymphoma, histoplasmosis, yaws, tuberculosis, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and other destructive lesions are frequently misdiagnosed as early lesions of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis.[1],[2],[3] Hence other diagnostic methods are required to confirm the clinical suspicion.[1],[4]

The diagnosis of leishmaniasis is reliably made by the demonstration of the parasite in smears and by isolation, either in culture or by animal inoculation of a biopsy sample or tissue aspirate from the spleen, or the bone marrow. The sensitivity is highest for splenic aspiration (as high as 98%) but so is the risk of complications such as haemorrhage. Occasionally the amastigotes have also been demonstrated in liver biopsy (50-85% sensitive), lymph node aspirates and buffy coat smears, particularly in HIV-Leishmania co-infection cases.[1],[2],[3],[4] The details are shown in [Table - 1].

The parasitological diagnosis of CL is made by demonstration of amastigotes in skin lesions on skin biopsy and on culture of these specimens.[1],[2] Many other methods for demonstration of parasites such as histochemical and immunohistochemical examination of smears have been described.[6],[7] Culture based diagnosis of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis has very low sensitivity as the organisms are often scant.[7] The individual sensitivities for the methods for patients and Montenegro-positive healthy controls were: histopathology: 14% and 16%; impression smear: 19% and 21%; dermal scraping: 22% and 26%; aspirate-culture: 58% and 64%; aspirate-hamster: 38% and 41%; biopsy-culture: 50% and 55%; and biopsy-hamster 52% and 57%, respectively. The sensitivity is slightly better for younger lesions than for lesions older than 6 months.[8]

Primary isolation of L. donovani is made on solid Novy- MacNeal- Nicolle (NNN) medium having 20-30% rabbit blood or liquid Schneider’s insect medium supplemented with 10% v/v foetal calf serum (FCS). Other suitable growth media can also be used, particularly for maintaining the subcultures of the promastigotes using FCS or other supplements including human urine.[5]

  ::   Serological diagnosis Top

The biggest problem with conventional smear or culture techniques is low sensitivity particularly in detecting the occult and sub-clinical infections. These techniques are also cumbersome, and time consuming, and not suitable for field. The serological diagnosis is based on the presence of specific humoral response, as in cases of visceral leishmaniasis or cell mediated immune response, as in cases of cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis.[1] A wide range of serological methods varying in sensitivity and specificity are available for the diagnosis of VL. These serological methods can be grouped into non-specific and specific tests.

The non-specific tests had been in use in the past but are very rarely used these days. A positive test does not confirm the diagnosis of Leishmaniasis.[1] Indirect haemagglutination (IHA), counter-current immunoelectrophoresis (CCIEP), and Immunodiffusion (ID) are examples of non-specific tests. These tests are cumbersome and have lower sensitivity and specificity and hence not commonly used.[8],[9],[10] Some more commonly used ones are described below.

Leishmanin Skin Test (LST)

Delayed hypersensitivity is an important feature of cutaneous forms of human leishmaniasis and can be measured by the leishmanin test, also known as the Montenegro reaction. Leishmanin is a killed suspension of whole (0.5-1 x 10[7]/ml) or disrupted (250 µg protein/ml) promastigotes in pyrogen-free phenol saline. No cross-reactions occur with Chagas’ disease, but some cross-reactions are found with cases of glandular tuberculosis and lepromatous leprosy. Leishmanin Skin Test is usually used as an indicator of the prevalence of cutaneous and mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis in human and animal populations and successful cure of visceral leishmaniasis.[9],[11],[12] During active kala-azar disease there will be no or negligible cell mediated immune response. However, the leishmanin antigen is not commercially available and no field study has been carried out in India.

Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test (IFAT)

The Indirect fluorescent antibody test is one of the most sensitive tests available. The test is based on detecting antibodies, which are demonstrated in the very early stages of infection and are undetectable six to nine months after cure. If the antibodies persist in low titers, it is good indication of a probable relapse. Titers above 1:20 are significant and above 1:128 are diagnostic.[5] There is a possibility of a cross reaction with trypanosomal sera. However, this can be overcome by using leishmania amastigotes as the antigen instead of the promastigotes.[10] Although this test is more sensitive (96%) and specific (98%) than soluble antigen ELISA, it is cumbersome and not suitable for field conditions.[13]

Direct Agglutination Test

The direct agglutination test (DAT) is a highly specific and sensitive test. It is inexpensive and simple to perform making it ideal for both field and laboratory use. The method uses whole, stained promastigotes either as a suspension or in a freeze-dried form. The freeze-dried form is heat stable and facilitates the use of DAT in the field. However, the major disadvantage of DAT is the relative long incubation time of 18 h and the need for serial dilutions of serum.[14],[15] Also, DAT has no prognostic value. The test may remain positive for several years after cure. Recently, Schoone et al[15] have developed a fast agglutination-screening test (FAST) for the rapid detection (<3 hours) of anti-leishmania antibodies in serum samples and on blood collected on filter paper. The FAST utilises only one serum dilution leading to qualitative results. It offers the advantages of DAT based on the freeze-dried antigen, of the antigen, reproducibility, specificity and sensitivity. Direct agglutination test has been evaluated for the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis using L. major promastigotes and was shown to be highly specific and sensitive (90.5%).[16]

Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay

The Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is a valuable tool in the serodiagnosis of leishmaniasis. The test is useful for laboratory analysis as well as for field applications. However, the sensitivity and specificity of ELISA is greatly influenced by the antigen used [Table - 2]. More recently, several recombinant antigens like rGBP from L. donovani, rORFF from L. infantum, rgp63, rK9, rK26 and rK39 from L.chagasi [17],[18],[19],[20],[21],[22] have been developed and tested. Of these, the rK39 antigen is found to be highly sensitive and predictive of onset of disease manifestation in VL patients. In contrast, it does not show detectable antibodies in cutaneous or mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. The antibody titres to this antigen directly correlate with active disease and have potential in monitoring the chemotherapy and in predicting the clinical relapse. In addition rK39 ELISA has a high predictive value for detecting VL in immunocompromised persons, like those with AIDS. A kit (InBios®, USA) using this antigen and based on lateral flow is now commercially available in the form of antigen-impregnated nitrocellulose paper strips adapted for use under field conditions. The rK39 strip test has been found highly sensitive and a reliable indicator of kala-azar in India.[23],[24],[25],[26]

Due to lack of facilities and expertise to perform skin biopsy, smears and cultures the proper diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis remains under reported. The use of serological tools in the diagnosis of CL has also been assessed by a number of studies. ELISA using few recombinant antigens viz., gene B protein (GBP) from Leishmania major, recombinant major surface glycoprotein, gp63, from L. major, and 2 recombinant proteins, T26-U2 and T26-U4, from Leishmania (Viannia) peruviana have been tried but have been found less suitable for diagnosing CL.[16],[27] Laboratory diagnosis of MCL has also taken a back seat and most of the cases are diagnosed (and obviously may be over-diagnosed) clinically. [Table - 2] shows comparative sensitivity and specificity of various ELISA based antibody detection techniques.[28]


Most of the work concerning the use of immunoblotting in the diagnosis of leishmaniasis has been done on visceral leishmaniasis (VL). In cutaneous leishmaniasis, anti-leishmania antibodies though detectable, are present in low tibres. Hence Immunoblotting is not widely adopted for diagnosing CL. The biggest advantage of immunoblotting, as a general rule, is that various antigens expressed and antibodies recognised during the course of infection can be documented. It also has an added advantage of permanent documentation. However, the technique is not user-friendly and limited only to research laboratories.[1],[10],[29],[30]

Antigen Detection

The antigen detection is an ideal method of diagnosing an infection. Antigen levels are expected to broadly correlate with the parasite load as well. This method of diagnosis should be a better alternative to the antibody detection methods, particularly in the immunocompromised patients, where antibody response is very poor. However, detection of antigen in the patient’s serum is complicated by the presence of high level of antibodies, circulating immune complexes, serum amyloid, rheumatoid factor and autoantibodies; all of which may mask immunologically important antigenic determinants or competitively inhibit the binding of free antigen. Though a few reports are published, no satisfactory antigen detection system is currently available.[31] Recently, a latex agglutination test (KATEX) for the detection of leishmanial antigens in the urine of patients with VL is developed.[32] The results obtained with KATEX using samples collected from patients of different foci of VL indicate that, the test works well regardless of the geographical origin of samples. The test had 100% specificity and sensitivity between 68-100%. Whether the test has applications for the detection of asymptomatic cases of VL and monitoring therapy is yet to be confirmed. There are no antigen detection systems currently available for CL and MCL.

  ::   Molecular methods Top

Microscopy and culture have the limitations of low sensitivity and are time consuming. The immunological methods fail to distinguish between past and present infections and are not very reliable in immunocompromised patients. While the molecular approach is capable of detecting nucleic acids unique to the parasite, it would address these limitations. A variety of nucleic acid detection methods targeting both DNA and RNA have been developed. Amongst these, the PCR has proved to be a highly sensitive and specific technique. The PCR assay can detect parasite DNA or RNA a few weeks ahead of appearance of any clinical signs or symptoms. Different DNA sequences in the genome of leishmania like ITS region, gp63 locus, telomeric sequences, sequence targets in rRNA genes such as 18s rRNA and SSU-rRNA and both conserved and variable regions in kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) minicircles are being used by various workers. [33],[34],[35],[36],[37]

The PCR-SSCP technique has been developed for the detection of sequence variation in rRNA genes within the L. donovani species. In addition, it can be performed easily and rapidly from clinical samples without prior need of cultivation of the parasite. PCR assay has also been used for post therapeutic follow-up and for detection of relapses among HIV-infected patients using SSU rRNA gene target. The use of fluorogenic real-time PCR using SSU-rRNA gene added with complete automation has made quantification of parasite burden possible. Besides it is a rapid, sensitive and highly specific test.[32],[33],[34],[35],[36]

Recently, primers developed by us (unpublished data) could differentiate the Indian strains causing VL and PKDL forms. An Alu-PCR-like amplification was performed from the cultured L. donovani isolates from VL and PKDL patients. The banding pattern of the PCR amplicons could clearly group all the PKDL strains in one group while VL strains had intra-species heterogeneity as reported by us earlier.[38]

The chronic CL patients constitute the greatest diagnostic challenge due to the low density of Leishmania parasites. For acute CL, dermal scrapings from the bottom of the ulcer may yield viable specimens for PCR. Recently, the sampling method has been further improved using cotton swab for diagnosis of CL. Collection of the exudative material is easy, painless and convenient for both the patients as well as the collectors compared with other sampling methods. The collection of exudates by cotton swab may be a better alternative to biopsy samples for the diagnosis of CL by PCR, especially in field conditions.[39],[40],[41],[42]

A PCR-ELISA technique developed recently is reported to be sufficiently sensitive and specific for use as a diagnostic test in cases of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Using this technique, the percentage of detection was 83.3% in blood samples from clinically diagnosed cases. No false positive results were obtained.[43] However, the use of PCR as a routine diagnostic method still requires a well-prepared laboratory and well-trained personnel. This hampers the feasibility of using this technique directly in the field.

  ::   Other surrogate markers Top

There are a few surrogate markers that can be used in predicting the prognosis of the kala-azar. Besides increase in haemoglobin and total and albumin fraction of the serum protein there is consequent decrease in serum globulin after sucessful treatment. This also increases the albumin/globulin ratio. Other laboratory parameters include increase in total WBC count, and decrease in ESR and serum levels of liver enzymes. The cytokines particularly, the TNF-alpha is another such prognostic marker. This cytokine is significantly raised in acute persistent cases of kala-azar but the levels come down sharply after parasitological cure.[10]

  ::   Leishmaniasis in hiv infected patients Top

HIV modifies the clinical presentation of leishmaniasis in the co-infected patient. Several atypical etiologic agents have been described in leishmanial syndromes affecting HIV-infected subjects. HIV-associated leishmaniasis is characterized by parasite dissemination to the skin (as in DCL), spread of the “non-visceralizing” species throughout the reticulo-endothelial system and spread to the atypical locations, as well. A review of current literature found that 20-40% cases had absence of splenomegaly. Lack of anti-Leishmania antibodies is a characteristic feature seen in these patients. Leishmania amastigotes are commonly found in Kaposi’s sarcoma and herpes zoster cutaneous lesions when HIV infected patients develope VL. Leishmaniasis has also been reported presenting with a dermatomyositis-like eruption in three patients with AIDS.[44] Though India has less experience of HIV-Leishmania co-infection the number of such cases is bound to increase in Bihar. We have seen about 10 cases at this institute. All were referred from Bihar or Uttaranchal. Usually the promastigotes can easily be seen in these patients due to heavy load of parasites. We have found high utility of anti-rK39 in these patients.

 :: References Top

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44.Mimori T, Matsumoto T, Calvopina MH, Gomez EA, Saya H, Katakura K, et al. Usefulness of sampling with cotton swab for PCR-diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the New World. Acta Trop 2002;81:197-202.   Back to cited text no. 44    
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46.Paredes R, Laguna F, Clotet B. Leishmaniasis in HIV-infected persons: a review. J Int Assoc Physicians AIDS Care 1997;3:22-39.  Back to cited text no. 46    


[Table - 1], [Table - 2]

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2 Treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis with intense pulsed light: Is it effective?
Amirhossein Siadat, Hamid Galehdari, Zabiholah Shahmoradi, Fariba Iraji, Azadeh Zolfaghari, Nazli Ansari
Advanced Biomedical Research. 2023; 12(1): 125
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3 Epigenetic paradigms/exemplars of the macrophage: inflammasome axis in Leishmaniasis
Manei M. Aljedaie
Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry. 2022;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 Advancement in leishmaniasis diagnosis and therapeutics: An update
Diksha Kumari, Summaya Perveen, Rashmi Sharma, Kuljit Singh
European Journal of Pharmacology. 2021; 910: 174436
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5 Assay development in leishmaniasis drug discovery: a comprehensive review
Bilal Zulfiqar, Vicky. M. Avery
Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery. 2021; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
6 Role of Cytokines in Experimental and Human Visceral Leishmaniasis
Mukesh Samant, Utkarsha Sahu, Satish Chandra Pandey, Prashant Khare
Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology. 2021; 11
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
7 Leishmaniasis diagnosis: an update on the use of parasitological, immunological and molecular methods
Shivani Thakur, Jyoti Joshi, Sukhbir Kaur
Journal of Parasitic Diseases. 2020; 44(2): 253
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8 Recombinant Cysteine Proteinase B from Leishmania braziliensis and Its Domains: Promising Antigens for Serodiagnosis of Cutaneous and Visceral Leishmaniasis in Dogs
A. E. Bivona, L. Czentner, A. Sanchez Alberti, N. Cerny, A. C. Cardoso Landaburu, C. Nevot, O. Estévez, J. D. Marco, M. A. Basombrio, E. L. Malchiodi, S. I. Cazorla, Michael J. Loeffelholz
Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 2019; 57(11)
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9 An ELISA immunoassay employing a conserved Leishmania hypothetical protein for the serodiagnosis of visceral and tegumentary leishmaniasis in dogs and humans
Ana Maria R.S. Carvalho, Lourena E. Costa, Beatriz C.S. Salles, Thaís T.O. Santos, Fernanda F. Ramos, Mariana P. Lima, Miguel A. Chávez-Fumagalli, Bruna T. Silvestre, Áquila S.B. Portela, Bruno M. Roatt, Julia A.G. Silveira, Denise U. Gonçalves, Danielle F. Magalhães-Soares, Mariana C. Duarte, Daniel Menezes-Souza, Eduardo A.F. Coelho
Cellular Immunology. 2017; 318: 42
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10 Granulomatous Diseases Affecting Jaws
Baddam Venkat Ramana Reddy,Kiran K. Kuruba,Samatha Yalamanchili,Mel Mupparapu
Dental Clinics of North America. 2016; 60(1): 195
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11 Cutaneous leishmaniasis in the central provinces of Hama and Edlib in Syria: Vector identification and parasite typing
Nabil Haddad,Hanadi Saliba,Atef Altawil,Jeffrey Villinsky,Samar Al-Nahhas
Parasites & Vectors. 2015; 8(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
12 Leishmaniasis: diagnostic issues in Europe
Paul Torpiano,David Pace
Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy. 2015; 13(9): 1123
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
13 Comparison of PCR with stained slides of bone marrow and lymph nodes aspirates with suspect diagnosis for leishmaniasis
T.R. Santos,V.S. Carreira,H.F. Ferrari,M.A.B. Moreira,M.C.R. Luvizotto
Acta Tropica. 2014; 140: 137
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14 Changing trends in the epidemiology, clinical presentation, and diagnosis of Leishmania–HIV co-infection in India
Sarman Singh
International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2014;
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15 Animal Reservoirs of Visceral Leishmaniasis in India
Niti Singh,Jyotsna Mishra,Ram Singh,Sarman Singh
Journal of Parasitology. 2013; 99(1): 64
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
16 Bench-scale experiments for the development of a unified loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the in vitro diagnosis of Leishmania speciesæ promastigotes
Epidemiology and Infection. 2013; : 1
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17 Peripheral Blood Buffy Coat Smear: a Promising Tool for Diagnosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis
M. Abdus Salam, M. Gulam Musawwir Khan, Khondaker Rifat Hasan Bhaskar, Mokibul Hassan Afrad, M. Mamun Huda, Dinesh Mondal
Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 2012; 50(3): 837
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18 Information Visualization to Enhance Sensitivity and Selectivity in Biosensing
Osvaldo N. Oliveira,Felippe J. Pavinatto,Carlos J. L. Constantino,Fernando V. Paulovich,Maria Cristina F. Oliveira
Biointerphases. 2012; 7(1-4): 1
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19 Proteoliposomes in nanobiotechnology
P. Ciancaglini, A. M. S. Simão, M. Bolean, J. L. Millán, C. F. Rigos, J. S. Yoneda, M. C. Colhone, R. G. Stabeli
Biophysical Reviews. 2012;
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20 Significance of persistence of antibodies against Leishmania infantum in sicilian patients affected by acute visceral leishmaniasis
Clinical and Experimental Medicine. 2011;
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21 Immunocytochemical and immunohistochemical methods as auxiliary techniques for histopathological diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis
Sandro N. Lunedo, Vanete Thomaz-Soccol, Edilene A. de Castro, José Ederaldo Queiroz Telles
Acta Histochemica. 2011;
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22 Clinical, Histopathologic, and Cytologic Diagnosis of Mucosal Leishmaniasis and Literature Review
Yahya Daneshbod, Ahmad Oryan, Mehdi Davarmanesh, Sadegh Shirian, Shahrzad Negahban, Azita Aledavood, Mohammad Ali Davarpanah, Hossein Soleimanpoor, Khosrow Daneshbod
Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine. 2011; 135(4): 478
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23 Validation of a Leishmania infantum ELISA rapid test for serological diagnosis of Leishmania chagasi in dogs
M. Marcondes, A.W. Biondo, A.A.D. Gomes, A.R.S. Silva, R.F.C. Vieira, A.A. Camacho, John Quinn, R. Chandrashekar
Veterinary Parasitology. 2011; 175(1-2): 15
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24 Bone marrow leishmaniasis: a review of situation in Thailand
Viroj Wiwanitkit
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine. 2011; 4(10): 757
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25 Importance of Nonenteric Protozoan Infections in Immunocompromised People
J. L. N. Barratt, J. Harkness, D. Marriott, J. T. Ellis, D. Stark
Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 2010; 23(4): 795
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26 Biosensors for Efficient Diagnosis of Leishmaniasis: Innovations in Bioanalytics for a Neglected Disease
Ângelo C. Perinoto, Rafael M. Maki, Marcelle C. Colhone, Fabiana R. Santos, Vanessa Migliaccio, Katia R. Daghastanli, Rodrigo G. Stabeli, Pietro Ciancaglini, Fernando V. Paulovich, Maria C. F. de Oliveira, Valtencir Zucolotto
Analytical Chemistry. 2010; 82(23): 9763
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27 Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis is useful for distinguishing Leishmania species of visceral and cutaneous forms
Awanish Kumar,Vijay Raju Boggula,Pragya Misra,Shyam Sundar,Ajit Kumar Shasany,Anuradha Dube
Acta Tropica. 2010; 113(2): 202
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28 Evaluation of 4 polymerase chain reaction protocols for cultured Leishmania spp. typing
Marcele Neves Rocha, Carina Margonari, Ivanete Milagres Presot, Rodrigo Pedro Soares
Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease. 2010; 68(4): 401
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29 Cellular and humoral responses induced by Leishmania histone H2B and its divergent and conserved parts in cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis patients, respectively
A. Meddeb-Garnaoui,A. Toumi,H. Ghelis,M. Mahjoub,H. Louzir,M. Chenik
Vaccine. 2010; 28(7): 1881
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
30 Comparison between ELISA using total antigen and immunochromatography with antigen rK39 in the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis
Valéria Marçal Félix de Lima, Karina Reinaldo Fattori, Aparecida de Fátima Michelin, Luiz da Silveira Neto, Rosemere de O. Vasconcelos
Veterinary Parasitology. 2010; 173(3-4): 330
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31 Portal hypertension with visceral leishmaniasis
Rajniti Prasad, Utpal Kant Singh, O. P. Mishra, B. P. Jaiswal, Sunil Muthusami
Indian Pediatrics. 2010; 47(11): 965
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32 Development of a reverse transcriptase loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the sensitive detection of Leishmania parasites in clinical samples
Adams, E.R., Schoone, G.J., Ageed, A.F., El Safi, S., Schallig, H.D.F.H.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2010; 82(4): 591-596
33 Cellular and humoral responses induced by Leishmania histone H2B and its divergent and conserved parts in cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis patients, respectively
Meddeb-Garnaoui, A., Toumi, A., Ghelis, H., Mahjoub, M., Louzir, H., Chenik, M.
Vaccine. 2010; 28(7): 1881-1886
34 Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis is useful for distinguishing Leishmania species of visceral and cutaneous forms
Kumar, A., Boggula, V.R., Misra, P., Sundar, S., Shasany, A.K., Dube, A.
Acta Tropica. 2010; 113(2): 202-206
35 In response
Xynos, I.D., Tektonidou, M.G., Pikazis, D., Sipsas, N.V.
Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009; 15(10): 1706-1707
36 Clinical and epidemiological features of visceral leishmaniasis and Hiv Co-infection in fifteen patients from Brazil
Daher, E.F., Fonseca, P.P., Gerhard, E.S., Silva Leitão, T.M.J., Silva Junior, G.B.
Journal of Parasitology. 2009; 95(3): 652-655
37 Identification of Leishmania species by the random amplified polymorphic DNA technique | [Identificación de especies de Leishmania por la técnica de amplificación al azar del ADN polimórfico]
Monzote Fidalgo, L., Ordeñana Pilotos, R., Fraga Nodarse, J., Montalvo Álvarez, A.M., Montano Goodrige, I.
Revista Cubana de Medicina Tropical. 2009; 61(2)
38 Identification of Leishmania species isolated in human cases in Mato Grosso do Sul, by means of the polymerase chain reaction | [Identificação de espécies de Leishmania isoladas de casos humanos em Mato Grosso do Sul por meio da reação em cadeia da polimerase]
Lima Jr., M.S.D.C., Andreotti, R., Dorval, M.E.M.C., Oshiro, E.T., Oliveira, A.G.D., Matos, M.F.C.D.
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical. 2009; 42(3): 303-308
39 Improvement of the newly developed latex agglutination test (Katex) for diagnosis of visceral lieshmaniasis
Hatam, G.R., Ghatee, M.A., Hossini, S.M.H., Sarkari, B.
Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis. 2009; 23(4): 202-205
40 Leishmania OligoC-TesT as a simple, rapid, and standardized tool for molecular diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Peru
Espinosa, D., Boggild, A.K., Deborggraeve, S., Laurent, T., Valencia, C., Pacheco, R., Miranda-Verástegui, C, Arévalo, J.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 2009; 47(8): 2560-2563
41 Improvement of the newly developed latex agglutination test (Katex) for diagnosis of visceral lieshmaniasis
Gholam Reza Hatam,Mohammad Amin Ghatee,Seyed Mohammad Hossein Hossini,Bahador Sarkari
Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis. 2009; 23(4): 202
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
42 Rational investigations for Kala-azar
Narain, N.P., Verma, N.
Indian Journal of Practical Pediatrics. 2009; 11(3): 279-282
43 A comparative study of the diagnosis of Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iraq by polymerase chain reaction and microbiologic and histopathologic methods
Al-hucheimi, S.N., Sultan, B.A., Al-Dhalimi, M.A.
International Journal of Dermatology. 2009; 48(4): 404-408
44 A comparative study of the diagnosis of Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iraq by polymerase chain reaction and microbiologic and histopathologic methods
Sundus Nsaif Al-Hucheimi,Baqur A. Sultan,Muhsin A. Al-Dhalimi
International Journal of Dermatology. 2009; 48(4): 404
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
45 Leishmania OligoC-TesT as a Simple, Rapid, and Standardized Tool for Molecular Diagnosis of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Peru
Diego Espinosa, Andrea K. Boggild, Stijn Deborggraeve, Thierry Laurent, Cristian Valencia, Rosa Pacheco, Ce´sar Miranda-Vera´stegui, Alejandro Llanos-Cuentas, Thierry Leclipteux, Jean-Claude Dujardin, Philippe Bu¨scher, Jorge Are´valo
Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 2009; 47(8): 2560
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
46 Appropriate Screening for Leishmaniasis before Immunosuppressive Treatments
Ioannis D. Xynos,Maria G. Tektonidou,Dimitrios Pikazis,Nikolaos V. Sipsas
Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009; 15(10): 1706b
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
47 Clinical and Epidemiological Features of Visceral Leishmaniasis and Hiv Co-infection in Fifteen Patients from Brazil
E. F. Daher,P. P. Fonseca,E. S. Gerhard,T. M. J. Silva Leitão,G. B. Silva Júnior
Journal of Parasitology. 2009; 95(3): 652
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
48 Immunological Dominance of Trypanosoma cruzi Tandem Repeat Proteins
Yasuyuki Goto, Darrick Carter, Steven G. Reed
Infection and Immunity. 2008; 76(9): 3967
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
49 Molecular diagnosis of leishmaniosis in the Paraná state of southern Brazil
Elisângela de Fátima Arruda Pereira,Vanete Thomaz-Soccol,Hermênio Cavalcante Lima,Andréa Thomaz-Soccol,Edilene Alcântara de Castro,Fabiane Mulinari-Brenner,Flávio Queiroz-Telles,Ennio Luz
Experimental Dermatology. 2008; 17(12): 1024
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50 Alteración de pruebas hepáticas y fiebre
Virginia Pomar, Carmen Muñoz, Pere Domingo
Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. 2008; 26(10): 667
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51 Changes of liver tests and fever
Pomar, V., Muñoz, C., Domingo, P.
Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiologia Clinica. 2008; 26(10): 667-668
52 Molecular diagnosis of leishmaniosis in the Paranástate of southern Brazil
de Fátima Arruda Pereira, E., Thomaz-Soccol, V., Lima, H.C., Thomaz-Soccol, A., de Castro, E.A., Mulinari-Brenner, F., Queiroz-Telles, F., Luz, E.
Experimental Dermatology. 2008; 17(12): 1024-1030
53 Expression and characterization of a recombinant kinesin antigen from an old Indian strain (DD8) of Leishmania donovani and comparing it with a commercially available antigen from a newly isolated (KE16) strain of L. donovani
Sivakumar, R., Dey, A., Sharma, P., Singh, S.
Infection, Genetics and Evolution. 2008; 8(3): 313-322
54 Expression and characterization of a recombinant kinesin antigen from an old Indian strain (DD8) of Leishmania donovani and comparing it with a commercially available antigen from a newly isolated (KE 16) strain of L-donovani
Sivakumar R, Dey A, Sharma P, et al.
55 Visceral leishmaniasis in renal transplant recipients: Clinical aspects, diagnostic problems, and response to treatment
Oliveira CMC, Oliveira MLMB, Andrade SCA, et al.
56 Visceral Leishmaniasis in Renal Transplant Recipients: Clinical Aspects, Diagnostic Problems, and Response to Treatment
C.M.C. Oliveira,M.L.M.B. Oliveira,S.C.A. Andrade,E.S. Girão,C.N. Ponte,M.U. Mota,P.F.C.B.C. Fernandes,H.H. Campos,R.M. Esmeraldo,J.B. Evangelista
Transplantation Proceedings. 2008; 40(3): 755
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57 Expression and characterization of a recombinant kinesin antigen from an old Indian strain (DD8) of Leishmania donovani and comparing it with a commercially available antigen from a newly isolated (KE16) strain of L. donovani
Ramu Sivakumar,Ayan Dey,Pawan Sharma,Sarman Singh
Infection, Genetics and Evolution. 2008; 8(3): 313
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
58 PCR-RFLP and RAPD for typing neotropical Leishmania | [PCR-RFLP y RAPD para la tipificación de Leishmania neotropical]
Montalvo, A.M., Monzote, L., Fraga, J., Montano, I., Muskus, C., Marín, M., de Doncker, S.,Dujardin, J.C.
Biomedica. 2008; 28(4): 597-606
59 Evaluation of a new ELISA based DNA recombinant protein for the diagnosis of Leishmania infantum infection
Boarino A, Bollo E, Prunotto L, et al.
VETERINARIA. 2008; 22(3): 17-21
60 Immunological dominance of Trypanosoma cruzi tandem repeat proteins
Goto Y, Carter D, Reed SG
INFECTION AND IMMUNITY. 2008; 76(9): 3967-3974
61 K26 antigen from L. infantum Mon1: Sequence based function-localization analysis
Darbani B, Toorchi M, Farajnia S, et al.
62 Comparison of conventional methods for diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in children of the center-west region of Brazil
Brustoloni YM, Cunha RV, Dorval ME, et al.
63 Short report: Use of kDNA-based polymerase chain reaction as a sensitive and differentially diagnostic method of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in disease-endemic areas of northern Argentina
Barrio A, Mora MC, Ramos F, et al.
64 Evaluation of PCR-RFLP (based on ITS-1 and HaeIII) for the detection of Leishmania species, using Greek canine isolates and Jordanian clinical material
Dweik, A., Schönian, G., Karanis, P., Mosleh I.M.
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology. 2007; 101(5): 399-407
65 Bioinformatic identification of tandem repeat antigens of the Leishmania donovani complex
Goto Y, Coler RN, Reed SG
INFECTION AND IMMUNITY. 2007; 75 (2): 846-851
66 Oral leishmaniasis: a clinicopathological study of 11 cases
Motta ACF, Lopes MA, Ito FA, et al.
ORAL DISEASES. 2007; 13 (3): 335-340
67 Liver transplant recipient with concomitant cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis
Deren Özcan, Deniz Seçkin, Adil M. Allahverdiyev, Peter J. Weina, Hakan Aydin, Figen Özçay, Mehmet Haberal
Pediatric Transplantation. 2007; 11(2): 228
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68 Oral leishmaniasis: a clinicopathological study of 11 cases
ACF Motta,MA Lopes,FA Ito,R Carlos-Bregni,OP de Almeida,AM Roselino
Oral Diseases. 2007; 13(3): 335
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
69 Bioinformatic Identification of Tandem Repeat Antigens of the Leishmania donovani Complex
Yasuyuki Goto, Rhea N. Coler, Steven G. Reed
Infection and Immunity. 2007; 75(2): 846
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
70 Evaluation of PCR-RFLP (based on ITS-1 and HaeIII) for the detection of Leishmania species, using Greek canine isolates and Jordanian clinical material
A. Dweik,G. Schönian,I.M. Mosleh,P. Karanis
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology. 2007; 101(5): 399
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
71 Double blind, randomized controlled trial, to evaluate the effectiveness of a controlled nitric oxide releasing patch versus meglumine antimoniate in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis [NCT00317629]
Sandra Y Silva, Ligia C Rueda, Marcos López, Iván D Vélez, Christian F Rueda-Clausen, Daniel J Smith, Gerardo Muñoz, Hernando Mosquera, Federico A Silva, Adriana Buitrago, Holger Díaz, Patricio López-Jaramillo
Trials. 2006; 7(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
72 Use of PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis To Identify the Main New World Leishmania Species and Analyze Their Taxonomic Properties and Polymorphism by Application of the Assay to Clinical Samples
Brice Rotureau, Christophe Ravel, Pierre Couppie´, Francine Pratlong, Mathieu Nacher, Jean-Pierre Dedet, Bernard Carme
Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 2006; 44(2): 459
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
73 Leishmaniasis visceral con afectación cardíaca en un paciente inmunocompetente
José Luis Puerto-Alonso, Francisco José Molina-Ruano, Francisco Gómez-Soto, Francisco Gómez-Rodríguez
Medicina Clínica. 2006; 127(13): 519
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74 Comparison of New Diagnostic Tools for Management of Pediatric Mediterranean Visceral Leishmaniasis
Israel Cruz, Carmen Chicharro, Javier Nieto, Begon~a Bailo, Carmen Can~avate, Mari´a-Concepcio´n Figueras, Jorge Alvar
Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 2006; 44(7): 2343
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
Abedelmajeed Nasereddin,Suheir Ereqat,Kifaya Azmi,Gad Baneth,Charles L. Jaffe,Ziad Abdeen
Journal of Parasitology. 2006; 92(1): 178
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
76 Cloning, Characterization, and Serodiagnostic Evaluation of Leishmania infantum Tandem Repeat Proteins
Yasuyuki Goto, Rhea N. Coler, Jeffrey Guderian, Raodoh Mohamath, Steven G. Reed
Infection and Immunity. 2006; 74(7): 3939
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
77 Leishmania–HIV co-infection: An emerging problem in India
Naresh S Redhu,Ayan Dey,Veena Balooni,Sarman Singh
AIDS. 2006; 20(8): 1213
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
78 Cutaneous and presumed visceral leishmaniasis in a soldier deployed to Afghanistan
Woodrow, J.P., Hartzell, J.D., Czamik, J., Brett-Major, D.M., Wortmann, G.
MedGenMed Medscape General Medicine. 2006; 8(4): Art no 43
79 A patient with long-term, unrecognized leishmaniasis | [Een patiënt met jarenlang niet onderkende mucocutane leishmaniasis]
Rabelink, N.M., De Steenwinkel, J.E.M., Van Biezen, P., Van Daele, P.L.A., Gyssens, I.C.
Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde. 2006; 150(49): 2715-2719
80 PCR in the investigation of canine American tegumentary leishmaniasis in northwestern Paraná State, Brazil
Velasquez, L.G., Membrive, N., Membrive, U., Rodrigues, G., Reis, N., Campana Lonardoni, M.V., Teodoro, U., (...), Silveira, T.G.V.
Cadernos de Saude Publica. 2006; 22(3): 571-578
81 Visceral leishmaniasis with cardiac affectation in an immunocompetent patient
Puerto-Alonso JL, Molina-Ruano FJ, Gomez-Soto F, et al.
MEDICINA CLINICA. 2006; 127 (13): 519-519
82 Immunologic tests in patients after clinical cure of visceral leishmaniasis
Silva LD, Romero HD, Prata A, et al.
83 Comparison of polymerase chain reaction with other laboratory methods for the diagnosis of American cutaneous leishmaniasis - Diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis by polymerase chain reaction
Marques MJ, Volpini AC, Machado-Coelho GLL, Machado-Pinto J, da Costa CA, Mayrink W, Genaro O, Romanha AJ
84 Use of PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis to identify the main new world Leishmania species and analyze their taxonomic properties and polymorphism by application of the assay to clinical samples
Rotureau B, Ravel C, Couppie P, et al.
85 Cloning, expression, and purification of a novel recombinant antigen from Leishmania donovani
Sivakumar R, Sharma P, Chang KP, et al.
86 Correlation of clinical, histopathological, and microbiological findings in 60 cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis
Ul Bari, A., Ber Rahman, S.
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology. 2006; 72(1): 28-32
87 Clinical features and diagnosis of 42 travellers with cutaneous leishmaniasis
Scarisbrick, J.J., Chiodini, P.L., Watson, J., Moody, A., Armstrong, M., Lockwood, D., Bryceson, A., Vega-López, F.
Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease. 2006; 4(1): 14-21
88 Serological survey with PCR validation for canine visceral leishmaniasis in northern Palestine
Nasereddin A, Ereqat S, Azmi K, et al.
JOURNAL OF PARASITOLOGY. 2006; 92 (1): 178-183
89 Leishmania-HIV co-infection: An emerging problem in India
Redhu NS, Dey A, Balooni V, Sarman Singh
AIDS. 2006; 20 (8): 1213-1215
90 Immune responses in kala-azar
Saha S, Mondal S, Banerjee A, et al.
91 New developments in diagnosis of leishmaniasis
Singh S
92 Cloning, characterization, and serodiagnostic evaluation of Leishmania infantum tandem repeat proteins
Goto Y, Coler RN, Guderian J, et al.
INFECTION AND IMMUNITY. 2006; 74 (7): 3939-3945
93 Comparison of new diagnostic tools for management of pediatric Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis
Cruz I, Chicharro C, Nieto J, et al.
94 Polymerase chain reaction with lesion scrapping for the diagnosis of human American tegumentary leishmaniasis
Venazzi EAS, Roberto ACBS, Barbosa-Tessmann IP, et al.
95 Double blind, randomized controlled trial, to evaluate the effectiveness of a controlled nitric oxide releasing patch versus meglumine antimoniate in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis [NCT00317629]
Silva SY, Rueda LC, Lopez M, et al.
TRIALS. 2006; 7: Art. 14
96 Outsourced real-time PCR diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the outbreak region of Constatine, Algeria | [Diagnostic délocalisé par PCR temps réel de la leishmaniose cutanée sévissant dans le foyer de Constantine (Algérie)]
Mihoubi, I., De Monbrison, F., Romeuf, N., Moulahem, T., Picot, S.
Medecine Tropicale. 2006; 66(1): 39-44
97 Cloning, expression, and purification of a novel recombinant antigen from Leishmania donovani
Ramu Sivakumar,Pawan Sharma,Kwang-Poo Chang,Sarman Singh
Protein Expression and Purification. 2006; 46(1): 156
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
98 Clinical features and diagnosis of 42 travellers with cutaneous leishmaniasis
J.J. Scarisbrick,P.L. Chiodini,J. Watson,A. Moody,M. Armstrong,D. Lockwood,A. Bryceson,F. Vega-López
Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease. 2006; 4(1): 14
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
99 Comparison of polymerase chain reaction with other laboratory methods for the diagnosis of American cutaneous leishmaniasis
Marcos J. Marques, Ângela C. Volpini, George L.L. Machado-Coelho, Jackson Machado-Pinto, Carlos A. da Costa, Wilson Mayrink, Odair Genaro, Alvaro J. Romanha
Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease. 2006; 54(1): 37
[VIEW] | [DOI]
100 Visceral leishmaniasis in Nepal during 1980-2006
Joshi, D.D., Sharma, M., Bhandari, S.
Journal of Communicable Diseases. 2006; 38(2): 139-148
101 Clinical diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis: A comparison study between standardized graded direct microscopy and ITS1-PCR of Giemsa-stained smears
A. Al-Jawabreh, G. Schoenian, O. Hamarsheh, W. Presber
Acta Tropica. 2006; 99(1): 55
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102 Evaluation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using crude Leishmania and recombinant antigens as a diagnostic marker for canine visceral leishmaniasis
do Rosario EY, Genaro O, Franca-Silva JC, et al.
103 The value of a new microculture method for diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis by using bone marrow and peripheral blood
Allahverdiyev AM, Bagirova M, Uzun S, Alabaz D, Aksaray N, Kocabas E, Koksal F
104 Contribution study of visceral leishmaniasis in Syria
Al-Nahhas S, Shaaban M, Hammoud L
SAUDI MEDICAL JOURNAL. 2005; 26 (3): 490-492
105 Applications of molecular methods for Leishmania control
Singh, S., Dey, A., Sivakumar, R.
Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics. 2005; 5(2): 251-265
106 Haematological profile of childhood visceral leishmaniasis
Dash, S., Awasthi, A., Marwaha, R.K.
Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology. 2005; 48(1): 4-6
107 Applications of molecular methods forLeishmaniacontrol
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108 Zur Diagnostik der <i>Leishmania</i>-Infektionen. Diagnosis of <i>Leishmania</i> infections
Gabriele Schönian, Amer Al-Jawabreh, Wolfgang Presber
LaboratoriumsMedizin. 2004; 28(6): 498
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109 Mucosal leishmaniasis in an Indian AIDS patient
Sarman Singh
The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2004; 4(11): 660
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110 Intermittent fever and splenomegaly in a young type I diabetic patient with severe hypercholesterolemia and weight loss
Crazzolara, D., Bonsembiante, B., Vedovato, M.
Giornale Italiano di Diabetologia e Metabolismo. 2004; 24(4): 71-75
111 Diagnosis of Leishmania infections
Schönian, G., Al-Jawabreh, A., Presber, W.
LaboratoriumsMedizin. 2004; 28(6): 498-505
112 Purification, characterization of O-acetylated sialoglycoconjugates-specific IgM, and development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis and follow-up of Indian visceral leishmaniasis patients
Bandyopadhyay S, Chatterjee M, Pal S, et al.
113 Unsuspected peritoneal leishmaniasis in an HIV-positive woman with ovarian cancer
Jain S, Sharma P, Gupta R, Kumar N
ACTA CYTOLOGICA. 2004; 48 (4): 583-584
114 Leishmaniasis in patients with chronic renal failure: A diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for the clinician
Maggi P, Gaudiano V, Valente M, Latorraca A, Cavaliere RL, Marroni M, Larocc AMV, Stagni G, Lopez T, Pastore G
Journal of Nephrology. 2004; 17(6): 296-301
115 Purification, characterization of O-acetylated sialoglycoconjugates-specific IgM, and development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis and follow-up of indian visceral leishmaniasis patients
Sumi Bandyopadhyay,Mitali Chatterjee,Santanu Pal,Ross F. Waller,Shyam Sundar,Malcolm J. McConville,Chitra Mandal
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116 Leishmania - From the bite to the disease
Cebalo, L.
Infektoloski Glasnik. 2003; 23(4): 197-204


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Online since 12th February '04
© 2004 - Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Official Publication of the Staff Society of the Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, India
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow