| ORIGINAL ARTICLE
|Year : 2004 | Volume
| Issue : 3 | Page : 167-172
Clinical and familial correlates of tardive dyskinesia in India and Israel
T Bhatia1, MR Sabeeha2, V Shriharsh3, K Garg1, RH Segman4, HL Uriel5, R Strous6, VL Nimgaonkar7, L Bernard4, Smita N Deshpande8
1 Indo US Project on Schizophrenia Genetics, Herzog Hospital, Jerusalem, Israel
2 Molecular Genetics of Tardive Dyskinesia, Herzog Hospital, Jerusalem, Israel
3 Familial Occurrence in Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorders and the Influence of Behavioral Change on the Psychosis or “P” Factor in the Humoral System of the Affected Individuals, Herzog Hospital, Jerusalem, Israel
4 Biological Psychiatry Laboratory, Jerusalem, Israel
5 Herzog Hospital, Jerusalem, Israel
6 Beer Yaakov Mental Health Center, Israel
7 Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Departments of Psychiatry and Human Genetics, Israel
8 Department of Psychiatry, Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital, New Delhi - 110001, India
Background: Antipsychotic drugs are widely used for the treatment of psychosis, especially schizophrenia. Their long-term use can result at times in serious side-effects such as Tardive Dyskinesia (TD). Since over 80% of schizophrenia sufferers (lifetime prevalence 1%) receive long-term antipsychotic drug treatment, the extent of the problem is potentially large. Increasing age is the most consistently demonstrated risk factor for TD.
Aims: To assess effect of different clinical factors and demographic variables in India and Israel and sib pair concordance of Tardive Dyskinesia (TD) in India.
Settings and Design: The study was conducted simultaneously among Indian and Israeli subjects: ascertainment was family-based in India and hospital-based in Israel.
Methods and Material: In India the instruments used were: Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies (DIGS), Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS), and Simpson Angus Scale (SAS). The last three instruments were also used in Israel.
Statistical Analysis: Regression analysis and Pearson’s correlation.
Results and Conclusions: TD symptoms were present in 40.4% of 151 Israeli subjects and 28.7% of 334 Indian subjects. While age at onset and total scores on PANSS were significant predictors of TD in both the samples, lower scores on the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale (GAF), diagnostic sub-group and male gender were significant predictors among Indians. There was no concordance of TD symptoms among 33 affected sib-pairs from India.
Smita N Deshpande
Department of Psychiatry, Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital, New Delhi - 110001
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
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