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Year : 2009  |  Volume : 55  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 131-134

Declaration of Helsinki, 2008: Implications for stakeholders in research

Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Parel, Mumbai - 400 012, India

Date of Submission02-Feb-2009
Date of Decision01-Mar-2009
Date of Acceptance12-Mar-2009
Date of Web Publication23-Jun-2009

Correspondence Address:
U M Thatte
Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Parel, Mumbai - 400 012
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0022-3859.52846

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 :: Abstract 

The Declaration of Helsinki (DoH) was adopted by the World Medical Association (WMA) in 1964, as a statement of ethical principles, to provide guidance to physicians and other participants in medical research involving human subjects. Having undergone several amendments, the most recent version was approved on 18 October 2008, by the WMA General Assembly at Seoul, South Korea, replacing all previous versions. This version highlights issues such as, participant safety, the need to include participants from otherwise underrepresented groups, clinical trial registration, post-study access, usage of data and human tissues, compensating participants with research-related injury, and usage of placebo.
In this article, we discuss the major aspects of the 2008 version, including the impact of this version on all stakeholders in research, including, investigators, ethics committee members, sponsors, authors, editors, and reviewers.

Keywords: Clinical trial registration, compensation, post-study access, research ethics, revised declaration of Helsinki

How to cite this article:
Puri K S, Suresh K R, Gogtay N J, Thatte U M. Declaration of Helsinki, 2008: Implications for stakeholders in research. J Postgrad Med 2009;55:131-4

How to cite this URL:
Puri K S, Suresh K R, Gogtay N J, Thatte U M. Declaration of Helsinki, 2008: Implications for stakeholders in research. J Postgrad Med [serial online] 2009 [cited 2023 Jun 1];55:131-4. Available from:

The Declaration of Helsinki [1] (DoH) was adopted by the World Medical Association (WMA) in 1964, as a statement of ethical principles, to provide guidance to physicians and other participants in medical research involving human subjects. The WMA [2] was established in 1947, after the Second World War, in reaction to the atrocities committed by Nazi physicians and is today a global body with 85 national medical associations (including the Indian Medical Association) representing approximately eight million physicians. [3]

The DoH is a global ethical standard for medical research and was approved at the WMA General Assembly by a majority vote of 75%, after extensive public debate. Almost all ethical guidelines such as, the Council for International Organizations of Medical Science [4] (CIOMS); the International Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects, 2002; the International Conference on Harmonisation - Good Clinical Practices [5] (ICH-GCP) Guidelines, 1996; the Amended Schedule Y; [6] and the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research on Human Participants, [7] have their origins in the principles of the DoH.

Historically, many guidelines have been developed following a public outcry against research atrocities (e.g., the Nuremberg Code following the Nazi tribunal and the Belmont Report following the Tuskegee scandal). Although the DoH may find its origins in the Nazi disaster, it has undergone several modifications over time as research ethics have evolved. Thus, significant additions were made in 1975, followed by minor amendments in 1983, 1989, and 1996. A major revision and reorganization was completed in 2000, at Edinburgh, where the use of placebos was specifically addressed. There were, however, many reactions to paragraph number 29 (regarding placebo). [1]

The process of revision of the DoH is a laborious one at that time involving many consultations and in this case began in May 2007, guided by a five member workgroup (Brazil, Germany, Japan, South Africa, and Sweden) with three rounds of stakeholder consultations. On 18 October, 2008, the WMA General Assembly meeting at Seoul, South Korea, overwhelmingly voted to adopt a completely new version. [8]

This new version addresses important points like emphasizing the need for providing access to research to otherwise underrepresented populations, registration of clinical trials, post-study access, and compensating subjects with research-related injuries, which have great implications for all stakeholders in clinical research today. [9] In this commentary we discuss the major highlights of the 2008 version and consider the ramifications.

Throughout all the versions of the Declaration, emphasis has always been given to the fact that, "it is the duty of the physician to promote and safeguard the health of patients". In the current version, the Declaration clearly specifies that this is also applicable to the "researcher physician". When a medical professional conducts research, his/her primary responsibility as a physician must not be in conflict with his/her scientific curiosity to find research answers, thus, his/her responsibility to safeguard the research participant's health and well-being is significantly enhanced.

The Declaration states that "populations that are underrepresented in medical research should be provided appropriate access to participation in research". This is important, as it clearly indicates the need to perform research among populations that otherwise would always enter the "exclusion criteria". For example, pregnant or lactating women, children, and the elderly, are often left out as they may be vulnerable. However, the absence of research (especially during the drug development process) suggests that it is often difficult to develop "evidence-based treatment guidelines" for these populations. Of course, the need to identify these participants as vulnerable and the necessity to have special protections in place remain as in the previous versions.

The older versions of the Declaration required continued research on current interventions for their effectiveness, efficiency, accessibility, and quality. However, the current version also highlights the need for continued research for their safety. This is relevant especially for drugs and devices, where the number of post-marketing recalls is increasing. The stories of the market recalls of rofecoxib [10] (recalled following the DSMB requirement to halt a clinical trial of the drug for a new indication due to safety concerns), and more recently rimonabant [11] (banned because of increased depression and suicidal attempts) illustrate the need for emphasis on safety during the clinical phases of drug development.

A disturbing aspect of the 2008 version of the Declaration is a missing sentence. The line, "the particular needs of the economically and medically disadvantaged must be recognized" has been removed from paragraph 9 (paragraph 8 in the 2004 version). In countries like India, where the reality is that patients often participate in research to get access to health care (in the absence of accessible and affordable health care, especially in therapeutic areas like oncology), recognizing the economically disadvantaged population as vulnerable is the need of the hour. The ICMRs Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research on Human Participants have clearly identified "persons who are economically or socially disadvantaged" as vulnerable and research in India should respect these guidelines. [7]

The need for having a well-defined research protocol has been described in the earlier versions of the Declaration. However, in this version the Declaration clarifies that each protocol must "indicate how the principles in this Declaration have been addressed". Designing a protocol is usually the responsibility of the sponsor/investigator, and a bland statement is often included that the trial will be conducted "in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki". However, the systems that have been put in place to honor these statements are equally important, as emphasized in the current version.

Additionally, the current version states that a protocol must have "provisions for treating and/or compensating subjects who are harmed as a consequence of participation in the research study." This is a very important inclusion. It is interesting to note that both the Amended Schedule Y [6] and ICMR Guidelines [7] have already described these aspects, and the ICMR in association with the Indian Society for Clinical Research (ISCR) and Forum for Ethics Review Committees in India (FERCI) have published draft guidelines for compensation of participants in case of research-related injuries. [12] In India, awareness and mechanisms of compensation to participants for research-related injuries [13] are inadequate and implementation of the guidelines will assist in honoring the DoH statement.

The aspect of post-trial access is often debated. The 2008 version of the DoH clearly states that "the protocol should describe arrangements for post-study access by study subjects to interventions identified as beneficial in the study or access to other appropriate care or benefits". Although this had found mention in the 2004 "Note of Clarification for Para 30", it has been now incorporated into para 14, emphasizing the need for a priori scheme for ensuring access to the intervention. All stakeholders in clinical research (including ethics committees who should consider this aspect while reviewing the proposal, regulators who should consider whether the intervention will be registered for public access in the country, the sponsor, and the investigator) must have a plan before initiating a trial.

Perhaps the strongest statement for transparency in the conduct of clinical trials comes in the form of Para 19, which requires that "every clinical trial must be registered in a publicly accessible database before recruitment of the first subject." As an extension to this point, the DoH in Para 30 goes on to say that "authors have a duty to make publicly available the results of their research on human subjects and are accountable for the completeness and accuracy of their reports" and that "they should adhere to accepted guidelines for ethical reporting".

Even before the 2008 DoH, the clinical research registration movement was strong, when the ICMJE (International Committee of Medical Journal Editors) [14] issued a statement that, commencing from July 2005, registration of a trial would be mandatory before it could be considered for publication in any of the 12 member journals. In India, the Clinical Trials Registry - India (CTRI), [15] the first such initiative in Asia, was launched by the ICMR's National Institute of Medical Statistics (NIMS) on 20 July, 2007. Any researcher who plans to conduct a drug trial on humans is expected to declare the details of the research in this registry, which is jointly funded by the Department of Science and Technology, WHO, and ICMR.

Although, according to the DoH, clinical trial registration is mandatory before recruitment of the first volunteer in a trial in India and elsewhere too; registration remains largely voluntary at present. Interestingly, out of a total of 67426 clinical trials registered at from161 countries, 901 are Indian trials accounting for hardly 1.3% of all registered trials. Of the 901 trials, there are 59 oncology studies. The CTRI has only 13 oncology trials registered. Obviously, the concept of registration is still nascent and there is a need for all stakeholders including sponsors, Ethics Committees, and investigators to consider implementing the DoH requirement of clinical trial registration. [16] As a step to increase transparency, 12 Indian medical journals (including the Journal of Post Graduate Medicine) have issued a policy that from January 2010, results of a clinical trial will be accepted for publication only if the trial has been registered at CTRI (or any other equivalent registry), if started in or after June 2008. [17]

The issue of obtaining voluntary informed consent from a potential research participant has been mentioned in the ethics guidelines right from the Nuremberg Code. [18] Earlier versions of the DoH have also mentioned that participation in research should be voluntary and informed. The current version, however, goes one step further, making a clear statement about the need to honor the autonomy of the participant. If, as said in Para 22 of the guidelines, the participant is competent to give consent (legally or medically), he/she should not be included without his/her (informed and voluntary) consent. Although not disallowing family or community consultation, the guideline clearly requires that the individual's autonomy be respected. The implementation of this guideline extends not only in the design of the consent forms, but also to the ethics committees, which must review and approve the consent procedure from this point of view, and more importantly, at the time of actual consenting.

Para 24 demands that special attention be given to the fact that the specific information needs of a participant are conveyed in an understandable manner. Although this was not present in the earlier versions, both Schedule Y and ICMR Guidelines have already anticipated this guideline, in that, translations in the vernacular are required to make the information understandable in the local context.

Para 25 is an entirely new and topically relevant feature. It applies to "medical research using identifiable human material or data" and clarifies clearly that "researchers must seek consent for collection, analysis, storage, and/or reuse of data". Whenever a consent waiver is sought, the DoH states that this may be done only after the research is reviewed and approved by a research ethics committee. The ICMR Guidelines have also very succinctly described the conditions when a consent waiver may be given and Ethics Committees and Investigators should honor this guideline in both word and spirit.

The new DoH (Para 31) allows a physician to also be a researcher only if he is convinced of the potential benefit and that participation in the study will not adversely affect the health of the patients who serve as research subjects. This emphasis on the safety of the participant increases the responsibility of the investigator as well as that of the ethics committees.

The issue of placebo controlled trials continues to remain hotly debated, [19] with convincing arguments run by both "sides" of the deliberations. Historically the DoH was against the usage of placebo, but in 2002, in Washington, the usage of placebo was explained in a note of clarification. [1]

The current guideline clearly states that a placebo may be used only where no current proven intervention exists or where there are compelling and scientifically sound methodological reasons. There are two important riders on this statement: one that the patients who receive placebo or no treatment should not be subject to risk of serious or irreversible harm, and two, extreme care must be taken to avoid abuse of this option. The role of the ethics committees in ensuring implementation of these two points needs to be realised. The EC members need adequate expertise to review the justification put forth for the use of placebo and also to oversee that the participant is not at risk.

The last point that is worth noting in the revised DoH is Para 33, which states that "research participants are entitled to be informed about the outcome of the study and to share any benefits that result from it, for example, access to interventions identified as beneficial in the study or to other appropriate care or benefits". We have already discussed that the DoH mentions the need for defining post-trial access in the protocol itself, before initiating the study. Informing participants of research results is possible through the registry. However, this statement does raise ethical problems when it comes to genetic research. [20]

The process of development of guidelines that influence research is as important as the guideline itself. In the case of the DoH, it is evident that as much attention has been paid to the process as to the final product itself. With contributions from many stakeholders, and genuine public debate, the 2008 version is another important contribution from the WMA. It is essential for everyone involved in research on humans, an ethics committee member, researcher, author, editor or reviewer, to read and internalize the principles laid down in the DoH, and this article has highlighted some of the major new aspects included, which may require revision by the Standard Operating Procedures (SOP), for planning, conduct, and reporting of clinical research.

 :: References Top

1.World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki, Ethical Principles for Medical Research involving human subjects. Available from: [last accessed on 2009 Jan 15].  Back to cited text no. 1    
2.World Medical Association. Available from: [last accessed on 2009 Jan 15].  Back to cited text no. 2    
3.World Medical Association member list. Available from: [last accessed on 2009 Jan 15].  Back to cited text no. 3    
4.CIOMS International ethical guidelines for biomedical research involving human subjects. Available from: [last accessed on 2009 Jan 24].  Back to cited text no. 4    
5.International conference on harmonisation of technical requirements for registration of pharmaceuticals for human use. Available from: [last accessed on 2009 Jan 24].  Back to cited text no. 5    
6.Schedule Y (amended version)-CDSCO. Available from: (Amended%20Version-2005) % 20 original.htm [last accessed on 2009 Jan 24].  Back to cited text no. 6    
7.ICMRs Ethical guidelines for biomedical research on human participants 2006. Available from: [last accessed on 2009 Jan 24]  Back to cited text no. 7    
8.World Medical Journal 2008;54:120-4. Available from: [last accessed on 2009 Mar 4].  Back to cited text no. 8    
9.World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki, Ethical Principles for Medical Research involving human subjects. Available from: [last accessed on 2009 Jan 15].  Back to cited text no. 9    
10.A history of celebrex. Available from: [last accessed on 2009 Jan 15].  Back to cited text no. 10    
11.Europe to Ban Acomplia Weight Loss Drug (Rimonabant). Available from: [last accessed on 2009 Jan 15].  Back to cited text no. 11    
12.Draft for guidelines for compensation to participants for research related injury in India. Available from: [last accessed on 2009 Jan 24].  Back to cited text no. 12    
13.Thatte UM, Kulkarni-Munshi R, Kalekar SA. Review of Policies for Injuries to Research Participants in India. J Med Ethics 2009 [in press].  Back to cited text no. 13    
14.De Angelis C, Drazen JM, Frizelle FA, Haug C, et al . Is this clinical trial fully registered? A statement from the international committee of medical journal. Haematologica. 2006;91:293-5. Available from: [last accessed on 2009 Jan 24].  Back to cited text no. 14    
15.Launch of the Indian Clinical Trial Registry. Available from: [last accessed on 2009 Jan 24].  Back to cited text no. 15    
16.Tharayan P, Ghersi D. Registering clinical trials in India a scientific and ethical imperative. Natl Med J India 2008;21:31-4.   Back to cited text no. 16    
17.Satyanarayana K, Sharma A, Parikh P, Vijayan VK, Sahu DK, Nayak BK, et al . Statement on publishing clinical trials in Indian biomedical journals. J Postgrad Med 2008;54:78-9.  Back to cited text no. 17  [PUBMED]  Medknow Journal
18.The Nuremberg code 1947. Available from: [last accessed on 2009 Jan 15].  Back to cited text no. 18    
19.Franklin GM, Howard B. What makes placebo-controlled trials unethical? Am J Bioeth 2002;2:3-9.  Back to cited text no. 19    
20.Moutel G, Duchange N, Raffi F, Sharara L, Theodorou I, Noλl V, et al. Study group Communication of pharmacogenetic research results to HIV-infected treated patients: Standpoints of professionals and patients. Eur J Hum Genet 2005;13:1055-62.  Back to cited text no. 20    

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37 Efficacy and tolerability of a cream containing modified glutathione (GSH-C4), beta-Glycyrrhetic, and azelaic acids in mild-to-moderate rosacea: A pilot, assessor-blinded, VISIA and ANTERA 3-D analysis, two-center study (The “Rosazel” Trial)
Federica Dall’Oglio, Mario Puviani, Massimo Milani, Giuseppe Micali
Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology. 2021; 20(4): 1197
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38 Assessment of clinical efficacy of lidocaine/tetracaine 7%/7% peel cream in fractional microablative laser procedure-associated pain for facial skin aging treatment. A randomized, controlled, single-blind trial
Elisabetta Caprari, Maria Teresa Viciguerra, Massimo Milani
Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology. 2021;
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39 The Effect of Educational Intervention on Health Rescue and Treatment Employees’ Knowledge, Attitude, and Preparedness of Isfahan Police Force about Bioterrorism
Majid Hashempoor, Simin Tahmasbi
Military Caring Sciences. 2021; 8(1): 33
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40 Pathogenetic mechanisms of mild traumatic brain injury in patients of different ages
M. Kurikeru, A. Muravskiy, A. Huk
Experimental and Clinical Medicine. 2021; 90(1)
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41 Caffeine Consumption in a Group of Adolescents from South East Poland—A Cross Sectional Study
Ewa Blaszczyk-Bebenek, Pawel Jagielski, Malgorzata Schlegel-Zawadzka
Nutrients. 2021; 13(6): 2084
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42 Changes in Diet and Anthropometric Parameters in Children and Adolescents with Celiac Disease—One Year of Follow-Up
Agnieszka Koziol-Kozakowska, Dominika Salamon, Zofia Grzenda-Adamek, Agnieszka Krawczyk, Mariusz Duplaga, Tomasz Gosiewski, Kinga Kowalska-Duplaga
Nutrients. 2021; 13(12): 4306
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
43 Human Fecal Metabolome Reflects Differences in Body Mass Index, Physical Fitness, and Blood Lipoproteins in Healthy Older Adults
Mengni Cui, Alessia Trimigno, Josue L. Castro-Mejía, Søren Reitelseder, Jacob Bülow, Rasmus Leidesdorff Bechshøft, Dennis Sandris Nielsen, Lars Holm, Søren Balling Engelsen, Bekzod Khakimov
Metabolites. 2021; 11(11): 717
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44 Relation of asymmetric dimethylarginine with pulmonary morbidities in neonatal respiratory distress syndrome
Neveen Tawfik Abed, Omima Mohamed Abdel Haie, Amira Ibrahim Mansour, Eman Rateb Abd Almonaem
Journal of Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine. 2021; 14(4): 511
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45 Impact of Selected Geriatric Syndromes on the Quality of Life in the Population Aged 60 and Older
Jitka Doležalová, Valérie Tóthová, Jan Neugebauer, Petr Sadílek
Healthcare. 2021; 9(6): 657
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46 Performance of Plasma HSP90a, Serum EBV VCA IgA Antibody and Plasma EBV DNA for the Diagnosis and Prognosis Prediction of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma
Qian Ye, Junying Guo, Yansong Chen, Zhaolei Cui, Yan Chen
Cancer Management and Research. 2021; Volume 13: 5793
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47 Estimated Effects of Web-Based Course from Adult Vocational Students’ Perspective—A PFA Course in Scandinavian Intellectual Disability Practice
Sylvia Olsson, Christine Gustafsson
Disabilities. 2021; 1(2): 98
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48 First-Hand Experience of Severe Dysphagia Following Brainstem Stroke: Two Qualitative Cases
Annette Kjaersgaard, Hanne Pallesen
Geriatrics. 2020; 5(1): 15
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49 Stress Response in Swedish Ambulance Personnel during Priority-1 Alarms
Kåre Karlsson, Patrik Niemelä, Anders Jonsson, Carl-Johan Törnhage
Australasian Journal of Paramedicine. 2020; 17: 1
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50 Regular Consumption of Lipigo® Promotes the Reduction of Body Weight and Improves the Rebound Effect of Obese People Undergo a Comprehensive Weight Loss Program
Marlhyn Valero-Pérez, Laura M. Bermejo, Bricia López-Plaza, Meritxell Aguiló García, Samara Palma-Milla, Carmen Gómez-Candela
Nutrients. 2020; 12(7): 1960
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51 A Dairy Product to Reconstitute Enriched with Bioactive Nutrients Stops Bone Loss in High-Risk Menopausal Women without Pharmacological Treatment
Marina Morato-Martínez, Bricia López-Plaza, Cristina Santurino, Samara Palma-Milla, Carmen Gómez-Candela
Nutrients. 2020; 12(8): 2203
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52 Relationship between miR-155 and miR-146a polymorphisms and susceptibility to multiple sclerosis in an Egyptian cohort
Marwa Ali, Olfat Shaker, Hanaa Eid, Eman Mahmoud, Eman Ezzat, Sylvana Gaber
Biomedical Reports. 2020;
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53 New Zealand Blackcurrant Extract Enhances Muscle Oxygenation During Forearm Exercise in Intermediate-Level Rock Climbers
Simon Fryer, Craig Paterson, Ian C. Perkins, Chris Gloster, Mark E.T. Willems, Julia A. Potter
International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism. 2020; 30(4): 258
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
54 Validity of single-point assessments for determining leg pulse wave velocity in sitting and supine positions
Simon Fryer, Keeron Stone, Gabriel Zieff, James Faulkner, Daniel Credeur, Lee Stoner
Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging. 2020; 40(3): 157
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55 Normative data for two challenging tests of face matching under ecological conditions
Lisa Stacchi, Eva Huguenin-Elie, Roberto Caldara, Meike Ramon
Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications. 2020; 5(1)
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56 Efficacy and safety of cilostazol-nimodipine combined therapy on delayed cerebral ischaemia after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage: a prospective, randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial protocol
Troy Dawley, Chad F Claus, Doris Tong, Sina Rajamand, Diana Sigler, Matthew Bahoura, Lucas Garmo, Teck M Soo, Prashant Kelkar, Boyd Richards
BMJ Open. 2020; 10(10): e036217
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57 [18F] FBB cortical uptake is not related to the age of onset of Alzheimer’s disease
Agostino Chiaravalloti, Gaetano Barbagallo, Anna Elisa Castellano, Maria Ricci, Gabriele Ciccariello, Francesco Ursini, Nicola D’Ascenzo, Quingguo Xie, Orazio Schillaci
Nuclear Medicine Communications. 2020; 41(2): 175
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58 Clinical Value of Serum Interleukin-33 Biomarker in Infants With Neonatal Cholestasis
Ola G. Behairy, Akram E. Elsadek, Eman G. Behiry, Ibrahim A. Elhenawy, Naglaa H. Shalan, Kamal R. Sayied
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology & Nutrition. 2020; 70(3): 344
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59 Sex-opposed inflammatory effects of 27-hydroxycholesterol are mediated via differences in estrogen signaling
Tom Houben, Albert V Bitorina, Yvonne Oligschlaeger, Mike LJ Jeurissen, Sander Rensen, S Eleonore Köhler, Marit Westerterp, Dieter Lütjohann, Jan Theys, Andrea Romano, Jogchum Plat, Ronit Shiri-Sverdlov
The Journal of Pathology. 2020; 251(4): 429
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60 Association of genetic polymorphism of PC-1 gene (rs1044498 Lys121Gln) with insulin-resistant type 2 diabetes mellitus in Punjabi Population of Pakistan
Abdullah Abdo Albegali, Muhammad Shahzad, Muhammad Ikram Ullah, Saqib Mahmood, Maryam Rashid
Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine. 2019; 7(8)
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61 The effect of ketorolac on posterior thoracolumbar spinal fusions: a prospective double-blinded randomised placebo-controlled trial protocol
Chad F Claus, Evan Lytle, Doris Tong, Diana Sigler, Dominick Lago, Matthew Bahoura, Amarpal Dosanjh, Michael Lawless, Dejan Slavnic, Prashant Kelkar, Clifford Houseman, Peter Bono, Boyd Richards, Teck M Soo
BMJ Open. 2019; 9(1): e025855
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62 Habitual Use of Medicinal Plants among a Group of Jordanian Elderly According to Physical Activity and Gender
Safaa A. Al-Zeidaneen , Hadil S. Subih , Ala’a Al-Bakheit , Nahla S. Al-Bayyari  , Seham M. Abu Jadayil
Journal of Pharmacy and Nutrition Sciences. 2019; 9(1): 25
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63 Actividad física moderada a vigorosa en educación física y recreo en estudiantes de primaria y secundaria de la frontera México-USA.
Javier Arturo Hall Lopez, Paulina Yesica Ochoa-Martínez, Raúl Alexis Macías Castro, Rodrigo Zúñiga Burruel, Pedro Sáenz-López Buñuel
Sportis. Scientific Journal of School Sport, Physical Education and Psychomotricity. 2018; 4(3): 426
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64 Elevated levels of granzyme B correlated with miR-874-3p downregulation in patients with acute myocardial infarction
Youyou Yan, Xinjing Song, Zhibo Li, Jinpu Zhang, Jiajun Ren, Junduo Wu, Yali Li, Yinuo Guan, Junnan Wang
Biomarkers in Medicine. 2017; 11(9): 761
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65 Functional correlates of TSH, fT3 and fT4 in Alzheimer disease: a F-18 FDG PET/CT study
Agostino Chiaravalloti, Francesco Ursini, Alessandro Fiorentini, Gaetano Barbagallo, Alessandro Martorana, Giacomo Koch, Mario Tavolozza, Orazio Schillaci
Scientific Reports. 2017; 7(1)
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66 Kinetics of coagulation in ST-elevation myocardial infarction following successful primary percutaneous coronary intervention
Paul F.A. Teunissen,Ruben Tijssen,Maurits L. van Montfoort,Lourens F.H.J. Robbers,Guus A. de Waard,Peter M. van de Ven,Aernout M. Beek,Paul Knaapen,Joost C.M. Meijers,Niels van Royen
Thrombosis Research. 2016; 137: 64
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67 Symptoms and Signs in Rigid Gas Permeable Lens Wearers During Adaptation Period
Gonzalo Carracedo,Alba Martin-Gil,Sofia C. Peixoto-de-Matos,Pilar Abejón-Gil,Rute Macedo-de-Araújo,Jose M. González-Méijome
Eye & Contact Lens: Science & Clinical Practice. 2016; 42(2): 108
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68 PET/CT with 18F-choline after radical prostatectomy in patients with PSA =2 ng/ml. Can PSA velocity and PSA doubling time help in patient selection?
Agostino Chiaravalloti,Daniele Di Biagio,Mario Tavolozza,Ferdinando Calabria,Orazio Schillaci
European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging. 2016;
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69 Influence of age, sex, body mass index, alcohol, and smoking on shear wave velocity (p-SWE) of the pancreas
Sabina Stumpf,Heike Jaeger,Tilmann Graeter,Suemeyra Oeztuerk,Julian Schmidberger,Mark Martin Haenle,Wolfgang Kratzer
Abdominal Radiology. 2016;
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70 Duración, intensidad y contexto de la clases de Educación Física impartidas por profesores de Educación Física y estudiantes de licenciatura
Javier Arturo Hall López, Paulina Yesica Ochoa-Martínez, Juan Carlos González Terrazas, José Ramiro González Ramírez
Sportis. Scientific Journal of School Sport, Physical Education and Psychomotricity. 2016; 3(1): 63
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71 Analysis of protein expression in periodontal pocket tissue: a preliminary study
Emanuela Monari,Aurora Cuoghi,Elisa Bellei,Stefania Bergamini,Andrea Lucchi,Aldo Tomasi,Pierpaolo Cortellini,Davide Zaffe,Carlo Bertoldi
Proteome Science. 2015; 13(1)
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72 Doppler-Derived Intracoronary Physiology Indices Predict the Occurrence of Microvascular Injury and Microvascular Perfusion Deficits After Angiographically Successful Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
Paul F.A. Teunissen, Guus A. de Waard, Maurits R. Hollander, Lourens F.H.J. Robbers, Ibrahim Danad, P. Stefan Biesbroek, Raquel P. Amier, Mauro Echavarría-Pinto, Alicia Quirós, Christopher Broyd, Martijn W. Heymans, Robin Nijveldt, Adriaan A. Lammertsma, Pieter G. Raijmakers, Cornelis P. Allaart, Jorrit S. Lemkes, Yolande E. Appelman, Koen M. Marques, Jean G.F. Bronzwaer, Anton J.G. Horrevoets, Albert C. van Rossum, Javier Escaned, Aernout M. Beek, Paul Knaapen, Niels van Royen
Circulation: Cardiovascular Interventions. 2015; 8(3)
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73 Blood pressure and disability-free survival among community-dwelling diabetic and non-diabetic elderly patients receiving antihypertensive treatment
Toshihiro Higashikawa,Yuko Hamazaki,Osamu Iritani,Takuro Morita,Taroh Himeno,Tazuo Okuno,Hiroshi Yano,Keisuke Watanabe,Masashi Okuro,Tsugiyasu Kanda,Shigeto Morimoto
Geriatrics & Gerontology International. 2015; : n/a
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74 Piezosurgical treatment of crestal bone: quantitative comparison of post-extractive socket outcomes with those of traditional treatment
Sergio Spinato,Alberto Rebaudi,Fabio Bernardello,Carlo Bertoldi,Davide Zaffe
Clinical Oral Implants Research. 2015; : n/a
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75 Electroacupuncture as a complement to usual care for patients with non-acute pain after back surgery: a study protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial
M.-S. Hwang,K.-H. Heo,H.-W. Cho,B.-C. Shin,H.-Y. Lee,I. Heo,N.-K. Kim,B.-K. Choi,D.-W. Son,E.-H. Hwang
BMJ Open. 2015; 5(2): e007031
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76 Detection of local recurrence of prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy: Is there a role for early 18F-FCH PET/CT?
Daniele Di Biagio,Agostino Chiaravalloti,Mario Tavolozza,Paolo Abbatiello,Orazio Schillaci
Annals of Nuclear Medicine. 2015; 29(10): 861
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77 Stage Characterization and Marginal Bone Loss Evaluation Up to 96 Months of Crestal Sinus Augmentation With Sequential Drills
Fabio Bernardello,Pietro Felice,Sergio Spinato,Alberto Rebaudi,Davide Righi,Claudio Malagoli,Daniel Torres-Lagares,Rafael Flores Ruiz,Davide Zaffe
Implant Dentistry. 2015; : 1
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78 Implications of the Colonic Deposition of Free Hemoglobin-a Chain
Jeremy N. Myers,Michael W. Schäffer,Olga Y. Korolkova,Amanda D. Williams,Pandu R. Gangula,Amosy E. M'Koma
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. 2014; 20(9): 1530
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79 Two-Stage Crestal Sinus Elevation by Sequential Drills in Less Than 4 mm of Residual Ridge Height
Fabio Bernardello,Enrico Massaron,Sergio Spinato,Davide Zaffe
Implant Dentistry. 2014; : 1
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80 Standardized measurement of the Modified Early Warning Score results in enhanced implementation of a Rapid Response System: A quasi-experimental study
Jeroen Ludikhuize,Marjon Borgert,Jan Binnekade,Christian Subbe,Dave Dongelmans,Astrid Goossens
Resuscitation. 2014; 85(5): 676
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81 Analisi tissutale proteomica della tasca parodontale. Uno studio pilota
C. Pellacani,E. Monari,D. Zaffe,A. Cuoghi,E. Bellei,A. Lucchi,S. Bergamini,A. Tomasi,C. Bertoldi
Dental Cadmos. 2014; 82(9): 650
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82 Effect of GnRH agonist therapy on the expression of human heat shock protein 70 in eutopic and ectopic endometria of women with endometriosis
Takehito Imamura,Khaleque N. Khan,Akira Fujishita,Michio Kitajima,Koichi Hiraki,Tadayuki Ishimaru,Hideaki Masuzaki
European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology. 2014; 180: 16
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83 Maxillary sinus augmentation by crestal access: a retrospective study on cavity size and outcome correlation
Sergio Spinato,Fabio Bernardello,Pablo Galindo-Moreno,Davide Zaffe
Clinical Oral Implants Research. 2014; : n/a
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84 Rasch analysis of the modified version of the Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke patients: Postural Stroke Study in Gothenburg (POSTGOT)
Carina U Persson,Katharina S Sunnerhagen,Åsa Lundgren-Nilsson
BMC Neurology. 2014; 14(1): 134
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85 Changes in lymphocyte subsets in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome treated with immunoglobulin
Hui Hou,Jun Miao,Xue Feng,Mei Han,Xiu Song,Li Guo
BMC Neurology. 2014; 14(1): 202
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86 Safety and Efficacy of PDpoetin for Management of Anemia in Patients with End Stage Renal Disease on Maintenance Hemodialysis: Results from a Phase IV Clinical Trial
Abbas Norouzi Javidan, Heshmatollah Shahbazian, Amirhossein Emami, Mir Saeed Yekaninejad, Hassan Emami-Razavi, Masoumeh Farhadkhani, Ahmad Ahmadzadeh, Fazel Gorjipour
Hematology Reports. 2014; 6(3): 5195
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87 Effect of a hydrogymnastics program on the serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein amongst elderly women
Javier Arturo Hall-López,Paulina Yesica Ochoa-Martínez,Edgar Ismael Alarcón-Meza,Fernando Israel Anaya-Jaramillo,Ana María Miranda Botelho Teixeira,José Moncada-Jiménez,José Carlos Ferreira-Reis,Estélio Henrique Martin Dantas
Health. 2014; 06(01): 80
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88 Non-bacterial protein expression in periodontal pockets by proteome analysis
Carlo Bertoldi, Elisa Bellei, Chiara Pellacani, Davide Ferrari, Andrea Lucchi, Aurora Cuoghi, Stefania Bergamini, Pierpaolo Cortellini, Aldo Tomasi, Davide Zaffe, Emanuela Monari
Journal of Clinical Periodontology. 2013; : n/a
[VIEW] | [DOI]
89 Risk of cardiovascular disease? A qualitative study of risk interpretation among patients with high cholesterol
Pia Kirkegaard,Adrian Edwards,Mette Risør,Janus Thomsen
BMC Family Practice. 2013; 14(1): 137
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90 Infección de la herida quirúrgica. Efectividad de los apósitos con polihexametileno biguanida
Carlos Martín-Trapero,María Martín-Torrijos,Lourdes Fernández-Conde,Manuela Torrijos-Torrijos,Elena Manzano-Martín,J. Luis Pacheco-del Cerro,Luis I. Díez-Valladares
Enfermería Clínica. 2013; 23(2): 56
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91 An Inter-Observer Agreement Study of Autofluorescence Endoscopy in Barrett’s Esophagus Among Expert and Non-Expert Endoscopists
J. Mannath,V. Subramanian,E. Telakis,K. Lau,V. Ramappa,M. Wireko,P. V. Kaye,K. Ragunath
Digestive Diseases and Sciences. 2013; 58(2): 465
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92 Proteomic patterns of colonic mucosal tissues delineate Crohnæs colitis and ulcerative colitis
Erin H. Seeley,Mary K. Washington,Richard M. Caprioli,Amosy E. MæKoma
PROTEOMICS - Clinical Applications. 2013; 7(7-8): 541
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93 An inter-observer agreement study of autofluorescence endoscopy in Barrettæs esophagus among expert and non-expert endoscopists
Mannath, J., Subramanian, V., Telakis, E., Lau, K., Ramappa, V., Wireko, M., Kaye, P.V., Ragunath, K.
Digestive Diseases and Sciences. 2013; 58(2): 465-470
94 Impossible, impractical, and non-identifiable? New criteria regarding consent for human tissue research in the declaration of helsinki
Colledge, F., Elger, B.S.
Biopreservation and Biobanking. 2013; 11(3): 149-152
95 Ailede Hipertansiyon Öyküsü Olan Çocuklarin Egzersiz Testi Yanitlari | [Exercise test results of children with family history of hypertension]
Yilmaz, M., Pirim, U., Çetin, M., Kiremitçi, S., Coşkun, S.
Turkiye Klinikleri Pediatri. 2013; 22(1): 1-7
96 Infección de la herida quirúrgica. Efectividad de los apósitos con polihexametileno biguanida | [Surgical site infections. Effectiveness of polyhexamethylene biguanide wound dressings]
Martín-Trapero, C., Martín-Torrijos, M., Fernández-Conde, L., Torrijos-Torrijos, M., Manzano-Martín, E., Pacheco-del Cerro, J.L., Díez-Valladares, L.I.
Enfermeria Clinica. 2013; 23(2): 56-61
97 Pattern recognition analysis of digital ECGs: Decreased QT measurement error and improved precision compared to semi-automated methods
meyer, O., Ferber, G., Greig, G., Holzgrefe, H.H.
Journal of Electrocardiology. 2013; 46(2): 118-125
98 Clinical significance of protocadherin-8 (PCDH8) promoter methylation in bladder cancer
Lin, Y.-L., Ma, J.-H., Luo, X.-L., Guan, T.-Y., Li, Z.-G.
Journal of International Medical Research. 2013; 41(1): 48-54
99 Downregulation of protocadherin-10 expression correlates with malignant behaviour and poor prognosis in human bladder cancer
Ma, J.-G., He, Z.-K., Ma, J.-H., Li, W.-P., Sun, G.
Journal of International Medical Research. 2013; 41(1): 38-47
100 Full-arch vertical reconstruction of an extremely atrophic mandible with "box technique." A novel surgical procedure: A clinical and histologic case report
Menoni, A., Bernardello, F., Spinato, S., Zaffe, D.
Implant Dentistry. 2013; 22(1): 2-7
101 Pattern recognition analysis of digital ECGs: Decreased QT measurement error and improved precision compared to semi-automated methods
Olivier Meyer,Georg Ferber,Gerard Greig,Henry H. Holzgrefe
Journal of Electrocardiology. 2013; 46(2): 118
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102 Impossible, Impractical, and Non-Identifiable? New Criteria Regarding Consent for Human Tissue Research in the Declaration of Helsinki
Flora Colledge,Bernice S. Elger
Biopreservation and Biobanking. 2013; 11(3): 149
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
103 Microradiography and microcomputed tomography comparative analysis in human bone cores harvested after maxillary sinus augmentation: a pilot study
Carlo Maria Soardi,Emanuele Clozza,Gianluca Turco,Matteo Biasotto,Steven P. Engebretson,Hom-Lay Wang,Davide Zaffe
Clinical Oral Implants Research. 2013; : n/a
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
104 Full-Arch Vertical Reconstruction of an Extremely Atrophic Mandible With “Box Technique.” A Novel Surgical Procedure
Andrea Menoni,Fabio Bernardello,Sergio Spinato,Davide Zaffe
Implant Dentistry. 2013; 22(1): 2
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
105 Quantitative Comparison of Cone Beam Computed Tomography and Microradiography in the Evaluation of Bone Density after Maxillary Sinus Augmentation: A Preliminary Study
Carlo M. Soardi,Davide Zaffe,Alessandro Motroni,Hom-Lay Wang
Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research. 2012; : n/a
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106 Is socket healing conditioned by buccal plate thickness? A clinical and histologic study 4 months after mineralized human bone allografting
Sergio Spinato,Pablo Galindo-Moreno,Davide Zaffe,Fabio Bernardello,Carlo M Soardi
Clinical Oral Implants Research. 2012; : n/a
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107 How nurses and physicians judge their own quality of care for deteriorating patients on medical wards
Jeroen Ludikhuize,Dave A. Dongelmans,Susanne M. Smorenburg,Miranda Gans-Langelaar,Evert de Jonge,Sophia E. de Rooij
Critical Care Medicine. 2012; 40(11): 2982
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
108 Ethical Issues in Human Population Biology
Trudy R. Turner
Current Anthropology. 2012; 53(s5): S222
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109 A novel placebo-controlled clinical study design without ethical concerns – The free choice paradigm
Paul Enck,David Grundy,Sibylle Klosterhalfen
Medical Hypotheses. 2012; 79(6): 880
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110 Factores fisiológicos y sociales asociados a la masa corporal de jóvenes mexicanos con discapacidad intelectual | [Physiological and social factors associated with increments of body mass of Mexican young people with intellectual disabilities]
Ramos-Jiménez, A., Wall-Medrano, A., Hernández-Torres, R.P.
Nutricion Hospitalaria. 2012; 27(6): 2020-2027
111 Clinical and prognostic significance of protocadherin-10 (PCDH10) promoter Methylation in bladder cancer
Lin, Y.L., Li, Z.G., He, Z.K., Guan, T.Y., Ma, J.Q.
Journal of International Medical Research. 2012; 40(6): 2117-2123
112 How nurses and physicians judge their own quality of care for deteriorating patients on medical wards: Self-assessment of quality of care is suboptimal
Ludikhuize, J., Dongelmans, D.A., Smorenburg, S.M., Gans-Langelaar, M., De Jonge, E., De Rooij, S.E.
Critical Care Medicine. 2012; 40(11): 2982-2986
113 What does ærespect for personsæ require? Attitudes and reported practices of genetics researchers in informing research participants about research
Miller, F.A., Hayeems, R.Z., Li, L., Bytautas, J.P.
Journal of Medical Ethics. 2012; 38(1): 48-52
114 Reliability of ultrasonographic measurement of the architecture of the vastus lateralis and gastrocnemius medialis muscles in older adults
Raj, I.S., Bird, S.R., Shield, A.J.
Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging. 2012; 46(1): 42-48
115 Recommendations for the return of research results to study participants and guardians: A report from the Childrenæs Oncology Group
Fernandez, C.V., Ruccione, K., Wells, R.J., Long, J.B., Pelletier, W., Hooke, M.C., Pentz, R.D., (...), Joffe, S.
Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2012; 30(36): 4573-4579
116 A novel placebo-controlled clinical study design without ethical concerns - The free choice paradigm
Enck, P., Grundy, D., Klosterhalfen, S.
Medical Hypotheses. 2012; 79(6): 880-882
117 Resistin involved in endothelial dysfunction among preclinical Tibetan male young adults
Yang, B., Li, M., Chen, B., Li, T.-D.
JRAAS - Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System. 2012; 13(4): 420-425
118 Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome could be an underestimated variant of “reversible neurological deficits” in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Bin Liu,Xuan Zhang,Feng-chun Zhang,Yuan Yao,Ri-zhi Zhou,Miao-Miao Xin,Li-Qin Wang
BMC Neurology. 2012; 12(1): 152
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119 Recommendations for the Return of Research Results to Study Participants and Guardians: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group
Conrad V. Fernandez, Kathleen Ruccione, Robert J. Wells, Jay B. Long, Wendy Pelletier, Mary C. Hooke, Rebecca D. Pentz, Robert B. Noll, Justin N. Baker, Maura O'Leary, Gregory Reaman, Peter C. Adamson, Steven Joffe
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120 Therapeutic effect of topical ozonated oil on the epithelial healing of palatal wound sites: a planimetrical and cytological study : Effect of ozonated oil on palatal wounds
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121 Reliability of ultrasonographic measurement of the architecture of the vastus lateralis and gastrocnemius medialis muscles in older adults : Reliability of ultrasonography
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Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging. 2011; : no
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122 Quantitative cytomorphometric analysis of exfoliated normal gingival cells
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123 Risk factors and outcomes after unplanned extubations on the ICU: A case-control study
De Groot, R.I., Dekkers, O.M., Herold, I.H.F., de Jonge, E., Arbous, M.S.
Critical Care. 2011; 15(1): R 19
124 A proposal for a policy on the ethical care and use of cadavers and their tissues
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125 Proteomic profiling of mucosal and submucosal colonic tissues yields protein signatures that differentiate the inflammatory colitides
Amosy E. MæKoma, Erin H. Seeley, Mary K. Washington, David A. Schwartz, Roberta L. Muldoon, Alan J. Herline, Paul E. Wise, Richard M. Caprioli
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126 Single-session combined photodynamic therapy with verteporfin and intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy for chronic central serous chorioretinopathy: a pilot study at 12-month follow-up
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Graefe s Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology. 2011;
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127 Placeboresponse : In Studien zum Schmerz und anderen klinischen Bedingungen
K. Weimer, B. Horing, S. Klosterhalfen, P. Enck
Der Schmerz. 2011; 25(3): 325
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128 The Use of Transarterial Chemoembolization in the Treatment of Unresectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Response to the Cochrane Collaboration Review of 2011
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Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology. 2011;
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129 The placebo response in clinical trials: more questions than answers
P. Enck, S. Klosterhalfen, K. Weimer, B. Horing, S. Zipfel
Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society B Biological Sciences. 2011; 366(1572): 1889
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130 Long-term Outcomes of Dismembered Pyeloplasty for Midline-crossing Giant Hydronephrosis Caused by Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction in Children
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Urology. 2010; 76(6): 1463
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131 Safety and Efficacy of an Ayurvedic Formulation Cystone in Management of Ureteric Calculi: A Prospective Randomized Placebo Controlled Study
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American Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology. 2010; 5(2): 58-64
132 Safety and efficacy of an Ayurvedic formulation cystone in management of ureteric calculi: A prospective randomized placebo controlled study
Mohanty, N.K., Nayak, R.L., Patki, P.S.
American Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology. 2010; 5(2): 58-64
133 Long-term outcomes of dismembered pyeloplasty for midline-crossing giant hydronephrosis caused by ureteropelvic junction obstruction in children
Baek, M., Park, K., Choi, H.
Urology. 2010; 76(6): 1463-1467
134 Inhibition of vascular ectonucleotidase activities by the pro-drugs ticlopidine and clopidogrel favours platelet aggregation : Biphasic actions of ticlopidine and clopidogrel
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British Journal of Pharmacology. 2010; 161(5): 1150-1160
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135 Safety and Efficacy of an Ayurvedic Formulation Cystone in Management of Ureteric Calculi: A Prospective Randomized Placebo Controlled Study
N.K. Mohanty,R.L. Nayak,Pralhad S. Patki
American Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology. 2010; 5(2): 58
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136 Integritet i klinisk forskning
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137 Hope in Huntingtonæs disease: A survey in counseling patients with Huntingtonæs disease, as well as the caregivers
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138 The ethics of writing a scientific paper | [Ética no trabalho científico]
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Arquivos de Gastroenterologia. 2009; 46(3): 164-166


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Online since 12th February '04
© 2004 - Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Official Publication of the Staff Society of the Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, India
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