Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
 Open access journal indexed with Index Medicus & ISI's SCI  
Users online: 10972  
Home | Subscribe | Feedback | Login 
About Latest Articles Back-Issues Articlesmenu-bullet Search Instructions Online Submission Subscribe Etcetera Contact
 ::  Similar in PUBMED
 ::  Search Pubmed for
 ::  Search in Google Scholar for
 ::Related articles
 ::  Article in PDF (1,001 KB)
 ::  Citation Manager
 ::  Access Statistics
 ::  Reader Comments
 ::  Email Alert *
 ::  Add to My List *
* Registration required (free) 

  IN THIS Article
 ::  Abstract
 :: Introduction
 :: Method
 :: Results
 :: Discussion
 :: Conclusion
 ::  Supplemental Mat...
 ::  References
 ::  Article Figures
 ::  Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded19    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 2    

Recommend this journal


  Table of Contents     
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 67  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 139-145

Association of atopic dermatitis with an increased risk of systemic lupus erythematosus: A systematic review and meta-analysis

1 Department of Pharmacology, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
2 Department of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
3 Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
4 Department of Rheumatic and Immunologic Diseases, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH, USA

Date of Submission23-Nov-2020
Date of Decision06-Jan-2021
Date of Acceptance30-Mar-2021
Date of Web Publication20-Aug-2021

Correspondence Address:
B Ponvilawan
Department of Pharmacology, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jpgm.JPGM_1270_20

Rights and Permissions

 :: Abstract 

Context: Previous studies on the association between atopic dermatitis (AD) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have yielded inconsistent results.
Aims: To investigate the relationship between atopic dermatitis and systemic lupus erythematosus.
Settings and Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis.
Materials and Methods: A systematic review was conducted on EMBASE and MEDLINE databases from inception to March 2020 using a search strategy that consisted of terms related to AD and SLE. Eligible study must be either cohort or case-control study. For cohort studies, they must include patients with AD and comparators without AD, then follow them for incident SLE. For case-control studies, they must include cases with SLE and controls without SLE and examine their prior history of AD.
Statistical Analysis Used: Meta-analysis of the studies was performed using a random-effect, generic inverse variance method to combine effect estimate and standard error. Funnel plot was used to assess publication bias.
Results: A total of 21,486 articles were retrieved. After two rounds of review by three investigators, six case-control studies were qualified for the meta-analysis. The case-control study meta-analysis found a significantly increased odds of SLE among patients with AD with the pooled odds ratio of 1.46 (95% CI, 1.05–2.04).
Conclusions: A significant association between AD and increased odds of SLE was observed by this systematic review and meta-analysis.

Keywords: Atopic dermatitis, eczema, meta-analysis, systemic lupus erythematosus

How to cite this article:
Ponvilawan B, Charoenngam N, Wongtrakul W, Ungprasert P. Association of atopic dermatitis with an increased risk of systemic lupus erythematosus: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Postgrad Med 2021;67:139-45

How to cite this URL:
Ponvilawan B, Charoenngam N, Wongtrakul W, Ungprasert P. Association of atopic dermatitis with an increased risk of systemic lupus erythematosus: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Postgrad Med [serial online] 2021 [cited 2023 Jun 10];67:139-45. Available from:

 :: Introduction Top

Atopic dermatitis (AD), or atopic eczema, is the most common chronic inflammatory skin disease worldwide which typically develops during childhood. Patients with AD usually present with recurrent eczematous lesions in flexural areas that cause pruritus and can interfere with daily activities.[1],[2] Several epidemiological studies have estimated that around 5–25% of the world population are affected by AD.[3],[4],[5] Family history of atopic diseases and several environmental factors, such as living in urban setting or regions with low ultraviolet light and smoking, are known risk factors for this disease.[1],[6],[7],[8]

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease with heterogeneous manifestations involving multiple organs such as joints, kidneys, nervous system, bone marrow, and skin.[9],[10] The incidence rate varies considerably around the world, ranging from 0.3 to 23.2/100,000 person-years with a predilection for women of childbearing age and people of African, Hispanic, or Asian ancestry.[10],[11] Known risk factors include family history, tobacco smoking, obesity, and vitamin D deficiency.[12],[13],[14]

Multiple studies have demonstrated that AD is associated with an increased risk of several chronic diseases such as cardiovascular, neuropsychiatric, and autoimmune disorders.[15],[16],[17],[18] There are also studies to suggest the association between AD and SLE although the results are still conflicting.[19],[20],[21],[22],[23],[24],[25],[26] This systematic review and meta-analysis was performed in order to comprehensively investigate the relationship between AD and SLE by identifying all relevant studies and summarizing their results together.

 :: Method Top

Search strategy

Independent search for all relevant publications indexed in EMBASE and MEDLINE from inception to March 2020 was conducted by three investigators (B.P., N.C., and W.W.) using search terms related to AD and SLE. The detailed search strategy is exhibited in the Supplemental Material 1.

Inclusion criteria

Eligible study must be either cohort or case-control study. For cohort studies, they must include patients with AD and comparators without AD, then follow them for incident SLE. Relative risk (RR), incidence rate ratio (IRR), hazard risk ratio (HR), or standardized incidence ratio (SIR) with associated 95% confidence interval (95% CI) that compare the incidence of SLE between the two groups must be reported. For case-control studies, they must include cases with SLE and controls without SLE and examine their prior history of AD. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% CI of the association between AD and SLE must be reported.

Study eligibility was independently determined by three investigators (B.P., N.C., and W.W.). The senior investigator (P.U.) provided the final determination after discussions with all investigators if different conclusions were made by the three investigators. The Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scale for cohort study and case-control study was used for determination of the quality of each study.[27] This quality assessment was performed by two investigators (B.P. and P.U.).

Data extraction

Data extraction was performed using a standardized collection form which contains the following information: the first author's surname, country where the study was conducted, study design (case-control versus cohort study), year of publication, number of participants, recruitment of participants, diagnosis of SLE, diagnosis of AD, follow-up duration (for cohort studies only), average age of participants, percentage of female participants, comorbidities of participants, variables adjusted in multivariate analysis, and adjusted effect estimates along with their 95% CI.

Statistical analysis

Review Manager 5.3 software (The Cochrane Collaboration, London, United Kingdom) was used for analysis of data. Point estimates along with their standard errors were extracted from each study and were combined together to calculate pooled effect estimates using the generic inverse variance method of DerSimonian and Laird which assigns weight for each study based on its variance.[28] Two meta-analyses of cohort studies and case-control studies were performed separately if there are enough number for each type of studies. IRR, HR, and SIR of cohort study was used as an approximation of RR to calculate pooled risk ratio for cohort studies. Random-effect model was used instead of fixed-effect model because of the difference in study design, protocols, and background populations of the included studies. Statistical heterogeneity was evaluated using Cochran's Q test along with I2 statistic which quantifies the proportion of the total variation across studies that is from heterogeneity instead of coincidence. A value of I2 of 0–25% implies insignificant heterogeneity, 26–50% low heterogeneity, 51–75% moderate heterogeneity, and >75% high heterogeneity.[29] The presence of publication bias was investigated by visualization of funnel plot to look for evidence of asymmetry.

 :: Results Top

Search results

A comprehensive systematic review of EMBASE and MEDLINE database yielded 21,486 articles in which 2372 articles were duplication and were removed, resulting in 19,114 articles for title and abstract review. A total of 19,051 articles were then eliminated as they obviously did not meet the eligibility criteria based on study design, type of article, and participants, leaving 63 articles for full-length article review. A total of 55 articles were eliminated at this stage as they did not report the outcome of interest. Ultimately, two cohort studies[19],[20] with 4,525,973 participants and six case-control studies[21],[22],[23],[24],[25],[26] with 19,713 participants met all of the eligibility criteria. Due to the limited number of cohort studies, only case-control studies were included into the meta-analysis. [Figure 1] illustrates the search methodology and selection process of this study. [Table 1] and [Table 2] provide information on design and baseline characteristics of participants of the included cohort studies and case-control studies, respectively.
Table 1: Main characteristics of the cohort studies included in the meta-analysis

Click here to view
Table 2: Main characteristics of the case-control studies included in the meta-analysis

Click here to view
Figure 1: Study identification and literature review process

Click here to view

Association between atopic dermatitis and systemic lupus erythematosus

The meta-analysis of case-control studies also showed a significantly elevated odds of SLE among patients with AD compared with individuals without AD with the pooled odds ratio of 1.46 (95% CI, 1.05–2.04). Statistical heterogeneity of this meta-analysis was moderate with I2 of 63% [Figure 2].
Figure 2: Forest plot of the meta-analysis of case-control studies of atopic dermatitis and risk of SLE

Click here to view

Evaluation for publication bias

Presence of publication bias was assessed by visualization of funnel plot. The plot for case-control studies was asymmetrical, which was suggestive of the presence of publication bias [Figure 3].
Figure 3: Funnel plot of the meta-analysis of case-control studies of atopic dermatitis and risk of SLE

Click here to view

To assess the effect of this publication bias on the pooled result, trim-and-fill sensitivity analysis as described by Duval et al.[30] was performed using Comprehensive Meta-analysis Program (Biostat, Englewood, New Jersey, USA). Using this technique, one hypothetical missing study was identified [Figure 4]. Inclusion of this hypothetical missing study into the meta-analysis did not significantly alter the pooled result with the new pooled OR of 1.56 (95% CI, 1.09–2.23).
Figure 4: Trim-and-fill sensitivity analysis of the meta-analysis of case-control studies of atopic dermatitis and risk of SLE

Click here to view

 :: Discussion Top

This systematic review and meta-analysis included data from 19,713 participants and found that patients with AD had 1.46-fold increased odds of developing SLE compared with individuals without AD. The results of two cohort studies further supported the result of our meta-analysis as they also reported the significantly increased risk of developing SLE in patients with AD.[19],[20] The exact mechanisms responsible for this association are still not known with certainty. Some possible explanations are discussed below.

First, immunologic pathways involving Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells might be responsible for both AD and SLE. A considerable amount of evidence shows that both patients with AD and SLE have an upregulation of Th2 cytokines, such as IL-5 and IL-13, and Th17 cytokines, such as IL-17 and IL-22. On the other hand, they had a downregulation of IL-2, one of the major cytokines of Th1 cells.[31],[32],[33],[34],[35],[36],[37],[38] Moreover, recent studies have demonstrated an increased level of IgE among patients with SLE, particularly among those with active disease, similar to patients with AD.[39],[40],[41] Thus, it is possible that dysregulation of Th1, Th2, and Th17 activities in AD could give rise to evolution of SLE in the same patients later in life.

Second, genetic factor might also play a role in the association between AD and SLE as family history is a known predisposing factor for both diseases.[7],[12] In fact, individuals with certain human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotypes, such as HLA-B and HLA-DRB1, are found to have an increased tendency to develop both diseases.[42],[43],[44],[45] Nonetheless, common susceptibility locus and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in HLA genes are yet to be found.

Apart from genetic risk factor, AD and SLE also share some environmental risk factors. Tobacco smoking and obesity are reported to be associated with an increased risk of both AD and SLE.[6],[13],[14] Tobacco smoking could promote elevation of serum IgE level and inflammatory response which, in turn, generate dysregulation of T and NK cells, DNA damage, and epigenetic changes. Obesity could create proinflammatory effect via adipokines secreted from dysfunctional adipocytes.[46],[47],[48],[49],[50],[51],[52],[53],[54]

Last, surveillance bias could also partially be responsible for an increased risk of SLE as patients with AD tend to have a more frequent exposure to healthcare providers due to the chronic nature of AD. However, SLE is a disease which would generally cause noticeable symptoms that patients usually seek for medical attention. Therefore, surveillance bias is probably not the only reason for the observed relationship.

Nonetheless, this systematic review and meta-analysis carries some limitations and the pooled results should be interpreted with caution. First, statistical heterogeneity of the meta-analysis was not low. We believe that difference in study design, protocols, and characteristics of the participants across the studies was responsible for the inter-study variation. Second, the accuracy of case identification of AD and SLE could be limited as about half of the included studies used diagnostic codes from administrative databases[19],[20],[25],[26] to identify and confirm the diagnosis. Finally, publication bias may have been present as evident by the asymmetrical funnel plot.

 :: Conclusion Top

This systematic review and meta-analysis observed an elevated odds of incident SLE among patients with AD compared with individuals without AD. Limitations included between-study heterogeneity, limited accuracy of case identification in the primary studies, and publication bias. Clinicians who take care of patients with AD should be aware of the higher risk and further evaluation is warranted when they develop new systemic symptoms.

Financial support and sponsorship


Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 :: Supplemental Material 1 – Searching Strategy Top

EMBASE Database

  1. 'asthma'/exp OR 'asthma'
  2. 'reactive airway disease'/exp OR 'reactive airway disease'
  3. 'bronchus hyperreactivity'/exp OR 'bronchus hyperreactivity'
  4. 'bronchial hyperresponsiveness'/exp OR 'bronchial hyperresponsiveness'
  5. 'atopic dermatitis'/exp OR 'atopic dermatitis'
  6. 'eczema'/exp OR 'eczema'
  7. 'allergic rhinitis'/exp OR 'allergic rhinitis'
  8. 'atopy'/exp OR 'atopy'
  9. atopic
  10. 'autoimmune disease'/exp OR 'autoimmune disease'
  11. 'rheumatic disease'/exp OR 'rheumatic disease'
  12. 'lupus'/exp OR 'lupus'
  13. 'systemic lupus erythematosus'/exp OR 'systemic lupus erythematosus'
  14. 'lupus erythematosus'/exp OR 'lupus erythematosus'
  15. 'sle'/exp OR 'sle'
  16. #1 OR #2 OR #3 OR #4 OR #5 OR #6 OR #7 OR #8 OR #9
  17. #10 OR #11 OR #12 OR #13 OR #14 OR #15
  18. #16 AND #17

Ovid MEDLINE Database

  1. or exp asthma/
  2. exp bronchial hyperreactivity/or reactive airway
  3. reactive airway
  4. atopic or exp dermatitis, atopic/
  5. or exp eczema/
  6. allergic or exp rhinitis, allergic/
  9. rheumatic or exp rheumatic diseases/
  10. autoimmune or exp autoimmune diseases/
  11. systemic lupus or exp lupus erythematosus, systemic/
  13. 1 or 2 or 3 or 4 or 5 or 6 or 7
  14. 8 or 9 or 10 or 11 or 12
  15. 13 and 14

 :: References Top

Weidinger S, Beck LA, Bieber T, Kabashima K, Irvine AD. Atopic dermatitis. Nat Rev Dis Primers 2018;4:1.  Back to cited text no. 1
Dharmage SC, Lowe AJ, Matheson MC, Burgess JA, Allen KJ, Abramson MJ. Atopic dermatitis and the atopic march revisited. Allergy 2014;69:17-27.  Back to cited text no. 2
Silverberg JI, Hanifin JM. Adult eczema prevalence and associations with asthma and other health and demographic factors: A US population-based study. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2013;132:1132-8.  Back to cited text no. 3
Flohr C, Mann J. New insights into the epidemiology of childhood atopic dermatitis. Allergy 2014;69:3-16.  Back to cited text no. 4
Abuabara K, Yu AM, Okhovat JP, Allen IE, Langan SM. The prevalence of atopic dermatitis beyond childhood: A systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Allergy 2018;73:696-704.  Back to cited text no. 5
Bonamonte D, Filoni A, Vestita M, Romita P, Foti C, Angelini G. The role of the environmental risk factors in the pathogenesis and clinical outcome of atopic dermatitis. BioMed Res Int 2019;2019:2450605.  Back to cited text no. 6
Pyun BY. Natural history and risk factors of atopic dermatitis in children. Allergy Asthma Immunol Res 2015;7:101-5.  Back to cited text no. 7
Wadonda-Kabondo N, Sterne JA, Golding J, Kennedy CT, Archer CB, Dunnill MG, et al. Association of parental eczema, hayfever, and asthma with atopic dermatitis in infancy: Birth cohort study. Arch Dis Child 2004;89:917-21.  Back to cited text no. 8
Tamirou F, Arnaud L, Talarico R, Scirè CA, Alexander T, Amoura Z, et al. Systemic lupus erythematosus: State of the art on clinical practice guidelines. RMD Open 2018;4:e000793.  Back to cited text no. 9
Tsokos GC. Systemic lupus erythematosus. N Engl J Med 2011;365:2110-21.  Back to cited text no. 10
Rees F, Doherty M, Grainge MJ, Lanyon P, Zhang W. The worldwide incidence and prevalence of systemic lupus erythematosus: A systematic review of epidemiological studies. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2017;56:1945-61.  Back to cited text no. 11
Bengtsson AA, Rylander L, Hagmar L, Nived O, Sturfelt G. Risk factors for developing systemic lupus erythematosus: A case–control study in southern Sweden. Rheumatology 2002;41:563-71.  Back to cited text no. 12
Cozier YC, Barbhaiya M, Castro-Webb N, Conte C, Tedeschi S, Leatherwood C. A prospective study of obesity and risk of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) among Black women. Semin Arthritis Rheum 2019;48:1030-4.  Back to cited text no. 13
Kamen DL. Environmental influences on systemic lupus erythematosus expression. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 2014;40:401-12,vii.  Back to cited text no. 14
Ascott A, Mulick A, Yu AM, Prieto-Merino D, Schmidt M, Abuabara K, et al. Atopic eczema and major cardiovascular outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis of population-based studies. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2019;143:1821-9.  Back to cited text no. 15
Kokkonen J, Niinimäki A. Increased incidence of autoimmune disorders as a late complication in children with early onset dermatitis and/or milk allergy. J Autoimmun 2004;22:341-4.  Back to cited text no. 16
Magyari A, Lam V, Wehner MR, Margolis D, Langan S, Abuabara K. Atopic eczema in adulthood and the risk of dementia: A population-based cohort study. J Invest Dermatol 2019;139:S33.  Back to cited text no. 17
Schonmann Y, Mansfield KE, Hayes JF, Abuabara K, Roberts A, Smeeth L, et al. Atopic eczema in adulthood and risk of depression and anxiety: A population-based cohort study. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2020;8:248-57.e16.  Back to cited text no. 18
Wei CC, Lin CL, Tsai JD, Shen TC, Sung FC. Increased incidence of juvenile onset systemic lupus erythematosus in children with atopic dermatitis. Lupus 2014;23:1494-9.  Back to cited text no. 19
Krishna MT, Subramanian A, Adderley NJ, Zemedikun DT, Gkoutos GV, Nirantharakumar K. Allergic diseases and long-term risk of autoimmune disorders: Longitudinal cohort study and cluster analysis. Eur Respir J 14;54:1900476.  Back to cited text no. 20
Goldman JA, Klimek GA, Ali R. Allergy in systemic lupus erythematosus. IgE levels and reaginic phenomenon. Arthritis Rheum 1976;19:669-76.  Back to cited text no. 21
Morton S, Palmer B, Muir K, Powell RJ. IgE and non-IgE mediated allergic disorders in systemic lupus erythematosus. Ann Rheum Dis 1998;57:660-3.  Back to cited text no. 22
Sekigawa I, Yoshiike T, Iida N, Hashimoto H, Ogawa H. Allergic disorders in systemic lupus erythematosus: Prevalence and family history. Lupus 2002;11:426-9.  Back to cited text no. 23
Parks CG, Biagini RE, Cooper GS, Gilkeson GS, Dooley MA. Total serum IgE levels in systemic lupus erythematosus and associations with childhood onset allergies. Lupus 2010;19:1614-22.  Back to cited text no. 24
Hsiao YP, Tsai JD, Muo CH, Tsai CH, Sung FC, Liao YT, et al. Atopic diseases and systemic lupus erythematosus: An epidemiological study of the risks and correlations. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2014;11:8112-22.  Back to cited text no. 25
Lin CH, Hung PH, Hu HY, Chung CJ, Chen TH, Hung KY. Clinically diagnosed urticaria and risk of systemic lupus erythematosus in children: A nationwide population-based case-control study. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2018;29:732-9.  Back to cited text no. 26
Wells G, Shea B, O'Connell D, Peterson J, Welch V, Losos M, et al. The Newcastle–Ottawa Scale (NOS) for Assessing the Quality of Non-Randomized Studies in Meta-Analysis 2000. Available from: [accessed on 2020 Jul 1].  Back to cited text no. 27
DerSimonian R, Laird N. Meta-analysis in clinical trials. Control Clin Trials 1986;7:177-88.  Back to cited text no. 28
Higgins JPT, Thompson SG, Deeks JJ, Altman DG. Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses. BMJ 2003;327:557-60.  Back to cited text no. 29
Duval S, Tweedie R. Trim and fill: A simple funnel-plot-based method of testing and adjusting for publication bias in meta-analysis. Biometrics 2000;56:455-63.  Back to cited text no. 30
Talaat RM, Mohamed SF, Bassyouni IH, Raouf AA. Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg cytokine imbalance in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients: Correlation with disease activity. Cytokine 2015;72:146-53.  Back to cited text no. 31
Morimoto S, Tokano Y, Kaneko H, Nozawa K, Amano H, Hashimoto H, et al. The increased interleukin-13 in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: Relations to other Th1-, Th2-related cytokines and clinical findings. Autoimmunity 2001;34:19-25.  Back to cited text no. 32
El-Gazzar II, Bahgat DMR, El Khateeb EM. IL22 in Egyptian SLE patients, could it reflect disease activity, skin or renal involvement or is it only an expensive ESR? Egypt Rheumatologist 2017;39:13-8.  Back to cited text no. 33
Comte D, Karampetsou MP, Kis-Toth K, Yoshida N, Bradley SJ, Kyttaris VC, et al. Brief Report: CD4+T cells from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus respond poorly to exogenous interleukin-2. Arthritis Rheumatol 2017;69:808-13.  Back to cited text no. 34
Brunner PM, Guttman-Yassky E, Leung DY. The immunology of atopic dermatitis and its reversibility with broad-spectrum and targeted therapies. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2017;139:S65-76.  Back to cited text no. 35
Koga C, Kabashima K, Shiraishi N, Kobayashi M, Tokura Y. Possible pathogenic role of Th17 cells for atopic dermatitis. J Invest Dermatol 2008;128:2625-30.  Back to cited text no. 36
Nograles KE, Zaba LC, Shemer A, Fuentes-Duculan J, Cardinale I, Kikuchi T, et al. IL-22-producing “T22” T cells account for upregulated IL-22 in atopic dermatitis despite reduced IL-17-producing TH17 T cells. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2009;123:1244-52.e2.  Back to cited text no. 37
Yoshizawa Y, Nomaguchi H, Izaki S, Kitamura K. Serum cytokine levels in atopic dermatitis. Clin Exp Dermatol 2002;27:225-9.  Back to cited text no. 38
Sanjuan MA, Sagar D, Kolbeck R. Role of IgE in autoimmunity. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2016;137:1651-61.  Back to cited text no. 39
Laske N, Niggemann B. Does the severity of atopic dermatitis correlate with serum IgE levels? Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2004;15:86-8.  Back to cited text no. 40
Rasheed Z, Zedan K, Saif GB, Salama RH, Salem T, Ahmed AA, et al. Markers of atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis and bronchial asthma in pediatric patients: Correlation with filaggrin, eosinophil major basic protein and immunoglobulin E. Clin Mol Allergy 2018;16:23.  Back to cited text no. 41
Kreiner E, Waage J, Standl M, Brix S, Pers TH, Couto Alves A, et al. Shared genetic variants suggest common pathways in allergy and autoimmune diseases. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2017;140:771-81.  Back to cited text no. 42
Park H, Ahn K, Park MH, Lee SI. The HLA-DRB1 polymorphism is associated with atopic dermatitis, but not egg allergy in Korean children. Allergy Asthma Immunol Res 2012;4:143-9.  Back to cited text no. 43
Margolis DJ, Mitra N, Kim B, Gupta J, Hoffstad OJ, Papadopoulos M, et al. Association of HLA-DRB1 genetic variants with the persistence of atopic dermatitis. Hum Immunol 2015;76:571-7.  Back to cited text no. 44
de Holanda MI, Klumb E, Imada A, Lima LA, Alcântara I, Gregório F, et al. The prevalence of HLA alleles in a lupus nephritis population. Transpl Immunol 2018;47:37-43.  Back to cited text no. 45
Speyer CB, Costenbader KH. Cigarette smoking and the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus. Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2018;14:481-7.  Back to cited text no. 46
Yi O, Kwon HJ, Kim H, Ha M, Hong SJ, Hong YC, et al. Effect of environmental tobacco smoke on atopic dermatitis among children in Korea. Environ Res 2012;113:40-5.  Back to cited text no. 47
Qiu F, Liang CL, Liu H, Zeng YQ, Hou S, Huang S, et al. Impacts of cigarette smoking on immune responsiveness: Up and down or upside down? Oncotarget 2017;8:268-84.  Back to cited text no. 48
Santos-Alvarez J, Goberna R, Sánchez-Margalet V. Human leptin stimulates proliferation and activation of human circulating monocytes. Cell Immunol 1999;194:6-11.  Back to cited text no. 49
Lord GM, Matarese G, Howard JK, Bloom SR, Lechler RI, et al. Leptin inhibits the anti-CD3-driven proliferation of peripheral blood T cells but enhances the production of proinflammatory cytokines. J Leukoc Biol 2002;72:330-8.  Back to cited text no. 50
Tian Z, Sun R, Wei H, Gao B. Impaired natural killer (NK) cell activity in leptin receptor deficient mice: Leptin as a critical regulator in NK cell development and activation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2002;298:297-302.  Back to cited text no. 51
Fantuzzi G. Adipose tissue, adipokines, and inflammation. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2005;115:911-9.  Back to cited text no. 52
Winer S, Paltser G, Chan Y, Tsui H, Engleman E, Winer D, et al. Obesity predisposes to Th17 bias. Eur J Immunol 2009;39:2629-35.  Back to cited text no. 53
Chung CP, Long AG, Solus JF, Rho YH, Oeser A, Raggi P, et al. Adipocytokines in systemic lupus erythematosus: Relationship to inflammation, insulin resistance and coronary atherosclerosis. Lupus 2009;18:799-806.  Back to cited text no. 54


  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4]

  [Table 1], [Table 2]

This article has been cited by
1 Comorbidities of atopic dermatitis—what does the evidence say?
Jacob P. Thyssen, Anne-Sofie Halling, Peter Schmid-Grendelmeier, Emma Guttman-Yassky, Jonathan I. Silverberg
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 2023;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Understanding Ocular Findings and Manifestations of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Update Review of the Literature
Wojciech Lubon, Malgorzata Lubon, Przemyslaw Kotyla, Ewa Mrukwa-Kominek
International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2022; 23(20): 12264
[Pubmed] | [DOI]


Print this article  Email this article
Online since 12th February '04
© 2004 - Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Official Publication of the Staff Society of the Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, India
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow