Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
 Open access journal indexed with Index Medicus & ISI's SCI  
Users online: 3639  
Home | Subscribe | Feedback | Login 
About Latest Articles Back-Issues Articlesmenu-bullet Search Instructions Online Submission Subscribe Etcetera Contact
 ::  Similar in PUBMED
 ::  Search Pubmed for
 ::  Search in Google Scholar for
 ::Related articles
 ::  Article in PDF (1,406 KB)
 ::  Citation Manager
 ::  Access Statistics
 ::  Reader Comments
 ::  Email Alert *
 ::  Add to My List *
* Registration required (free) 

  IN THIS Article
 ::  Abstract
  ::  Introduction
  ::  Case Description
  ::  Discussion
  ::  Conclusion
 ::  References
 ::  Article Figures

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded17    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 1    

Recommend this journal


  Table of Contents     
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 67  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 168-170

Indocyanine green enhanced near-infrared fluorescence imaging for perfusion assessment of colonic conduit for esophageal replacement: Utility of a novel technique

Department of Surgical Gastroenterology, Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, New Delhi, India

Date of Submission29-Oct-2020
Date of Decision18-Feb-2021
Date of Acceptance30-Mar-2021
Date of Web Publication13-Aug-2021

Correspondence Address:
R Gupta
Department of Surgical Gastroenterology, Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, New Delhi
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jpgm.JPGM_1227_20

Rights and Permissions

 :: Abstract 

Esophagectomy, followed by esophageal replacement using gastric/colonic conduits, is a complex surgical procedure with significant perioperative morbidity. The most significant and potentially life-threatening complication associated with esophageal replacement is conduit ischaemia, resulting in anastomotic leak and conduit necrosis. Ensuring adequate perfusion of the conduit remains the key to preventing conduit ischaemia. Indocyanine green (ICG) enhanced near-infrared fluorescence imaging is a novel technique which has been used for assessing bowel perfusion. While numerous studies have focused on ICG fluorescence imaging for assessment of gastric conduit perfusion after esophagectomy, data regarding its use for colonic conduits is limited to case reports. ICG fluorescence imaging can help in resolving intraoperative issues by predicting the adequacy of colonic conduit perfusion, thereby preventing postoperative morbidity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in Indian literature describing the utility of ICG fluorescence imaging for assessment of perfusion of colonic interposition.

Keywords: Colonic conduit, colonic interposition, esophagectomy, ICG fluorescence imaging, indocyanine green, perfusion assessment

How to cite this article:
Gupta R, Madaan V, Kumar S, Govil D. Indocyanine green enhanced near-infrared fluorescence imaging for perfusion assessment of colonic conduit for esophageal replacement: Utility of a novel technique. J Postgrad Med 2021;67:168-70

How to cite this URL:
Gupta R, Madaan V, Kumar S, Govil D. Indocyanine green enhanced near-infrared fluorescence imaging for perfusion assessment of colonic conduit for esophageal replacement: Utility of a novel technique. J Postgrad Med [serial online] 2021 [cited 2023 May 30];67:168-70. Available from:

 :: Introduction Top

Assessment of conduit perfusion is the most crucial step to prevent conduit ischemia. There is paucity of data regarding the role of Indocyanine Green enhanced near-infrared fluorescence imaging (ICG FI) for assessing perfusion of colonic conduits. Although in the present case, colonic conduit was performed for a benign indication, the primary aim of presenting this case is to highlight the utility of ICG FI during colonic interposition, which constitutes an important step during esophago-gastrectomy for benign as well as malignant conditions.

 :: Case Description Top

A 22-year-old female had undergone partial gastrectomy with feeding jejunostomy 9 months back, for gastric necrosis with perforation following corrosive ingestion. She was now planned for colonic interposition for absolute dysphagia secondary to long segment corrosive esophageal stricture. Colonoscopy and CT abdominal angiography were normal.

Intraoperatively, ascending, transverse, and descending colon were mobilized in preparation for a right colonic conduit (ascending and right transverse colon) supplied by the marginal arcade through left colic artery. Following trial clamping of middle colic, right colic, and the branch communicating ileocolic with right colic artery, the conduit appeared well perfused grossly; however, pulsations near the proximal end of conduit were found to be diminished and feeble [Figure 1]a. This raised concern about the possibility of inadequate perfusion. We, therefore, decided to perform ICG FI. A bolus of 0.1 mg/kg ICG solution was administered intravenously and fluorescence was visualized under near-infrared light. Within 45 s, uniform fluorescence was noticed at the proximal end of conduit [Figure 1]b. Fluorescence was homogenous and similar in intensity as compared to remaining colon. Following substernal transposition to the neck, the ascending colon appeared congested [Figure 1]c. All mechanical factors were ruled out. Repeat fluorescence imaging was performed which showed homogenous perfusion at the tip of the conduit [Figure 1]d. End to side, hand-sewn, esophago-colic anastomosis was performed [Figure 1]e. Fluorescence imaging after the anastomosis confirmed adequate perfusion [Figure 1]f. Distally, roux-en-y colo-jejunal anastomosis, and ileo-colic anastomosis were performed with feeding jejunostomy.
Figure 1: (a) Assessing pulsations at proximal end of the conduit after trial clamping of middle colic, right colic & branch between ileo-colic & right colic artery (bulldog clamps seen in situ); (b) homogeneous fluorescence noted after administration of ICG; (c) appearance of the tip of conduit in the neck: conduit appears congested in visible light; (d) intense fluorescence under near-infrared light with ICG fluorescence imaging; (e) appearance after the anastomosis under visible light: C (colon), E (esophagus); (f) appearance after the anastomosis using ICG fluorescence imaging: C (colon), E (esophagus).

Click here to view

Postoperative course was uneventful. Swallow study on postoperative day 10 [Figure 2] revealed no leak, following which she was started on oral feeds.
Figure 2: (a-f) Pre-operative contrast esophagogram showing the long segment stricture starting at distal cervical esophagus (red arrow, a) with passage of streak of contrast (black arrows), (e) and (f) represent esophagogram performed during endoscopy with guidewire passed across the stricture in the remnant stomach (red asterisk). Note the multiple pseudodiverticula along the length of esophagus; (g-l) Post-operative esophagogram showing colonic conduit shadow (red arrow, g) & passage of contrast across the esophago-colic anastomosis without any leak (black arrows).

Click here to view

 :: Discussion Top

ICG enhanced near-infrared fluorescence imaging has emerged as a useful technique for assessment of bowel perfusion. While the role of ICG FI for assessing perfusion of gastric conduits has been published extensively, literature regarding its use for colonic conduits is sparse. Extensive search revealed fewer than five cases worldwide and no cases in Indian literature, describing the use of ICG FI for colonic conduits.[1],[2],[3] This may be because colonic conduit is used only when stomach is not available for reconstruction. Thomas et al.[4] reported that colonic interposition constitutes only 18.5% of all procedures for esophageal replacement.

A recent meta-analysis revealed that ICG FI results in decreased anastomotic leaks and graft necrosis following esophagectomy.[5] Shimada et al.[1] and Kesler et al.[2] reported the earliest experiences with ICG use for assessment of colonic conduit. However, recently, Weisel et al.[3] were the first to report the technical description of ICG FI for assessing perfusion of colonic conduit.

The importance of pulsatile flow in the marginal arcade supplying the conduit has been well described.[6],[7] Although early studies revealed highest rates of conduit ischemia (~13.3%) with colonic interposition, recent data suggests that the prevalence is similar for gastric and colonic conduits.[8] Nevertheless. conduit ischemia and necrosis is a difficult situation to manage.

Apart from postoperative morbidity resulting from conduit necrosis, another important consideration is that further options for reconstruction are limited. Therefore, all measures must be taken intraoperatively to confirm adequate vascularization of the colonic conduit. The use of supercharged conduit or jejunal interposition has been suggested in case of suspected conduit hypo-perfusion.[2],[8] By confirming the findings of clinical assessment, ICG FI may help in deciding whether such steps are warranted or not.

This report is relevant from an Indian perspective, given the fact that colonic interposition is a common procedure for esophageal replacement for corrosive esophageal strictures, which form an important benign cause of dysphagia in developing countries.[9] Moreover, a rising trend of esophago-gastric junction carcinoma has been reported recently from a tertiary care center in India.[10] Such lesions often require an esophago-gastrectomy with colonic conduit. Therefore, the number of cases requiring creation of a colonic conduit with adequate intraoperative assessment of conduit perfusion, appears to be on the rise.

 :: Conclusion Top

ICG fluorescence imaging appears to be a valuable technique for assessment of colonic conduit perfusion during esophageal replacement. When there is clinical concern regarding perfusion, fluorescence imaging can confirm or refute the findings of clinical evaluation. Conduit hypo-perfusion based on fluorescence imaging may suggest the need for intraoperative measures to improve vascularity of the conduit. It can, thus, help in avoiding postoperative morbidity resulting from conduit ischemia and necrosis. Our case highlights the usefulness of ICG FI for colonic conduit during difficult intraoperative situations. However, larger studies are required to further clarify its role in decreasing anastomotic leaks & conduit necrosis.

Declaration of patient consent

The authors certify that appropriate patient consent was obtained.

Financial support and sponsorship


Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 :: References Top

Shimada Y, Okumura T, Nagata T, Sawada S, Matsui K, Hori R, et al. Usefulness of blood supply visualization by indocyanine green fluorescence for reconstruction during esophagectomy. Esophagus 2011;8:259-66.  Back to cited text no. 1
Kesler KA, Pillai ST, Birdas TJ, Rieger KM, Okereke IC, Ceppa D, et al. “Supercharged” isoperistaltic colon interposition for long-segment esophageal reconstruction. Ann Thorac Surg 2013;95:1162-8.  Back to cited text no. 2
Wiesel O, Shaw JP, Ramjist J, Brichkov I, Sherwinter DA. The use of fluorescence imaging in colon interposition for esophageal replacement: A technical note. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A 2020;30:103-9.  Back to cited text no. 3
Thomas P, Fuentes P, Giudicelli R, Reboud E. Colon interposition for esophageal replacement: Current indications and long-term function. Ann Thorac Surg 1997;64:757-64.  Back to cited text no. 4
Slooter MD, Eshuis WJ, Cuesta MA, Gisbertz SS, van Berge Henegouwen MI. Fluorescent imaging using indocyanine green during esophagectomy to prevent surgical morbidity: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Thorac Dis 2019;11(Suppl 5):S755-65.  Back to cited text no. 5
Chang AC. Colon interposition for staged esophageal reconstruction. Oper Tech Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2010;15:231-42.  Back to cited text no. 6
Fürst H, Hartl WH, Löhe F, Schildberg FW. Colon interposition for esophageal replacement: An alternative technique based on the use of the right colon. Ann Surg 2000;231:173-8.  Back to cited text no. 7
Athanasiou A, Hennessy M, Spartalis E, Tan BHL, Griffiths EA. Conduit necrosis following esophagectomy: An up-to-date literature review. World J Gastrointest Surg 2019;11:155-68.  Back to cited text no. 8
Ananthakrishnan N, Subbarao KS, Parthasarathy G, Kate V, Kalayarasan R. Long term results of esophageal bypass for corrosive strictures without esophageal resection using a modified left colon esophagocoloplasty--A report of 105 consecutive patients from a single unit over 30 years. Hepatogastroenterology 2014;61:1033-41.  Back to cited text no. 9
Choksi D, Kolhe KM, Ingle M, Rathi C, Khairnar H, Chauhan SG, et al. Esophageal carcinoma: An epidemiological analysis and study of the time trends over the last 20 years from a single center in India. J Family Med Prim Care 2020;9:1695-9.  Back to cited text no. 10
  [Full text]  


  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]

This article has been cited by
1 The role of fluorescence angiography in colonic interposition after esophagectomy
J J Joosten, S S Gisbertz, D J Heineman, F Daams, W J Eshuis, M I van Berge Henegouwen
Diseases of the Esophagus. 2022;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]


Print this article  Email this article
Online since 12th February '04
2004 - Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Official Publication of the Staff Society of the Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, India
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow