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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 68  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 162-167

Lane-Hamilton syndrome – Is it really a needle in a haystack?

1 Department of Pediatrics, Seth G.S. Medical College and KEM Hospital, Parel, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Pathology, Seth G.S. Medical College and KEM Hospital, Parel, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
M S Tullu
Department of Pediatrics, Seth G.S. Medical College and KEM Hospital, Parel, Mumbai, Maharashtra
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jpgm.JPGM_1163_20

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Introduction: The association of pulmonary hemosiderosis with celiac disease (Lane–Hamilton syndrome) is extremely rare. Case Details: A five-year-old female child presented with fever, cough, breathlessness, and pallor for 20 days, without any previous history of recurrent lower respiratory tract infections, tuberculosis, or cardiac disease. There was no history of pica, chronic diarrhea, bleeding, or personal or family history of repeated blood transfusions. She had tachycardia, tachypnea, severe pallor, stunting, rickets, and bilateral fine lung crepitations. Peripheral smear and blood indices revealed dimorphic anemia. Anti-tissue transglutaminase IgA antibody levels were high (>200 U/mL) and the upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with duodenal biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of celiac disease. The child was discharged on a gluten-free diet (GFD) and oral hematinic, but her dietary compliance was poor. Interestingly, the child had persistent bilateral pulmonary infiltrates, which was initially attributed to congestive cardiac failure (CCF), which persisted even despite treatment. HRCT chest revealed interstitial thickening and bilateral alveolar shadows and bronchoalveolar lavage showed a few inflammatory cells. The child was readmitted four times with similar complaints and was given packed red cell transfusions. In the fourth admission, a lung biopsy was done, which revealed extensive pulmonary hemosiderosis. The patient was given a course of oral steroids for 6 weeks, with a gluten-free diet, following which both the anemia and the pulmonary infiltrates resolved. Conclusion: Pulmonary hemosiderosis is an important cause of anemia in cases of celiac disease and may be misdiagnosed as CCF due to severe anemia. A strict GFD, with or without corticosteroids, can reverse the clinical and radiological picture.


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Online since 12th February '04
2004 - Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Official Publication of the Staff Society of the Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, India
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow