Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
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Year : 2013  |  Volume : 59  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 284-288  

Genetic instability in urinary bladder cancer: An evolving hallmark

N Wadhwa1, BB Mathew2, SK Jatawa1, A Tiwari1 
1 School of Biotechnology, Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
2 Department of Biotechnology, Sapthagiri College of Engineering, Bangalore, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
N Wadhwa
School of Biotechnology, Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh
India

Bladder cancer is a major health-care concern. A successful treatment of bladder cancer depends on its early diagnosis at the initial stage. Genetic instability is an essential early step toward the development of bladder cancer. This instability is found more often at the chromosomal level than at the nucleotide level. Microsatellite and chromosomal instability markers can be used as a prognostic marker for screening bladder cancer. Bladder cancer can be distinguished in two different categories according to genetic instability: Cancers with chromosomal level instability and cancers with nucleotide level instability. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) mismatch repair (MMR) system and its correlation with other biologic pathway, both are essential to understand the basic mechanisms of cancer development. Microsatellite instability occurs due to defects in DNA MMR genes, including human mutL homolog 1 and human mutL homolog 2. Chromosomal alterations including deletions on chromosome 3, 8, 9, 11, 13, 17 have been detected in bladder cancer. In the current review, the most recent literature of genetic instability in urinary bladder cancer has been summarized.


How to cite this article:
Wadhwa N, Mathew B B, Jatawa S K, Tiwari A. Genetic instability in urinary bladder cancer: An evolving hallmark.J Postgrad Med 2013;59:284-288


How to cite this URL:
Wadhwa N, Mathew B B, Jatawa S K, Tiwari A. Genetic instability in urinary bladder cancer: An evolving hallmark. J Postgrad Med [serial online] 2013 [cited 2021 Apr 14 ];59:284-288
Available from: https://www.jpgmonline.com/article.asp?issn=0022-3859;year=2013;volume=59;issue=4;spage=284;epage=288;aulast=Wadhwa;type=0


 
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