Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
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Year : 2015  |  Volume : 61  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 137-138  

Development of chronic myelogenous leukemia in a case of chronic lymphocytic leukemia with Tp53 gene deletion

A Gupta1, M Parihar1, AK Yadav1, A Chakrapani2,  
1 Department of Cytogenetics, Tata Medical Center, Kolkata,West Bengal, India
2 Department of Clinical Hematology, Tata Medical Center, Kolkata,West Bengal, India

Correspondence Address:
M Parihar
Department of Cytogenetics, Tata Medical Center, Kolkata,West Bengal
India




How to cite this article:
Gupta A, Parihar M, Yadav A K, Chakrapani A. Development of chronic myelogenous leukemia in a case of chronic lymphocytic leukemia with Tp53 gene deletion.J Postgrad Med 2015;61:137-138


How to cite this URL:
Gupta A, Parihar M, Yadav A K, Chakrapani A. Development of chronic myelogenous leukemia in a case of chronic lymphocytic leukemia with Tp53 gene deletion. J Postgrad Med [serial online] 2015 [cited 2022 Nov 30 ];61:137-138
Available from: https://www.jpgmonline.com/text.asp?2015/61/2/137/150907


Full Text

Concurrent manifestation of a myeloid and lymphoid neoplasm is a rare occurrence and is reported in less than 1% of the cases. [1]

A 57 year old patient presented with weakness, lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly, with a WBC count of 1,51,500/΅L and 92% lymphocytes. Immunophenotyping confirmed the diagnosis of CLL with the neoplastic cells expressing CD19,CD5, CD23, CD79b and CD20. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis on lymphocytes enriched by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated culture (LSC) showed TP53 deletion in 42% of the interphase cells. On treatment with single agent cyclophosphamide, 24 months post-diagnosis he presented with features of an evolving myeloproliferative neoplasm with a total count of 52,600/μL and a differential count that showed11% immature myeloid precursors,4% basophils and 40% lymphocytes. FISH done on peripheral blood using BCR-ABL1 dual-color dual fusion probe showed BCR-ABL1 fusion positivity in 34% of cells with an atypical single fusion signal pattern (1F2G1R). FISH analysis on lymphocytes enriched by LSC showed TP53 deletion in 15% of the cells. Conventional cytogenetic analysis of metaphases from un-stimulated overnight bone marrow cultures showed a t (9;15)(q34;q22) in 38 of the 40 metaphases with no morphological evidence of a Ph chromosome or deletion of the short arm of chromosome 17 (17p) [Figure 1]a and b].{Figure 1}

The matched metaphase FISH confirmed the presence of BCR-ABL1fusion, located on derivative chromosome 9 instead of chromosome 22 with green signals on both normal chromosome 22 and one red signal on the normal chromosome 9 (1F2G1R) [Figure 1]c]. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction done on the bone marrow aspirate sample showed the presence of p210 (e13a2) fusion transcript confirming the diagnosis of CML. The patient was started on chlorambucil (author give dose) and 400mg of Imatinib per day. Fifteen months post imatinib, the patient remains in complete cytogenetic remission of the CML clone (FISH negative), with persistent CLL clone,the TP53gene deletion being present in 23% of the cells [Figure 1]d].

Only ten cases of sequential occurrence of CML following CLL have been described in literature. The postulated causes for this are oncogenic effect of chemotherapeutic agents, (cyclophosphamide in the present case), immunodeficiency associated with CLL, defective stem cell pool, age-related accumulation of genetic defects or a common leukemogenic event. [2],[3] Secondary CML developing after CLL usually shows a favorable response to Imatinib. [4]

Our case, besides adding on to the series of CML developing in a diagnosed case of CLL and aberrant location of the BCR-ABL1 fusion gene on chromosome 9 instead of chromosome 22, also provides evidence for separate clonal origin of these neoplasms. Imatinib maintains its therapeutic effectiveness in controlling the CML clone in such an unusual setting though with no effect on CLL clone. The case also emphasizes and reiterates the fact that FISH and karyotyping are complementary to each other and so should be judiciously used together to arrive at a correct diagnosis.

References

1Laurenti L, Tarnani M, Nichele I, Ciolli S, Cortelezzi A, Forconi F, et al. The coexistence of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and myeloproliperative neoplasms: A retrospective multicentric GIMEMA experience. Am J Hematol 2011;86:1007-12.
2D'Arena G, Gemei M, Luciano L, D'Auria F, Deaglio S, Statuto T, et al. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia after chronic myeloid leukemia in the same patient: Two different genomic events and a common treatment? J ClinOncol 2012;30:e327-30.
3Royle JA, Baade PD, Joske D, Girschik J, Fritschi L. Second cancer incidence and cancer mortality among chronic lymphocytic leukaemia patients: A population-based study. Br J Cancer 2011;105:1076-81.
4Bhagavathi S, Borromeo V, Desai H, Crisan D. Case report and literature review: A rare patient with chronic myeloid leukemia and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Ann Clin Lab Sci 2008;38:405-9.

 
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