Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 65  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 58-59  

Isolated intraluminal ureteral endometriosis mimicking tuberculosis

S Rajaian1, M Pragatheeswarane1, K Krishnamurthy1, SC Narasimhachar2,  
1 Department of Urology, MIOT International, 4/112, Mount Poonamallee Road, Manapakkam, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Pathology, MIOT International, 4/112, Mount Poonamallee Road, Manapakkam, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. S Rajaian
Department of Urology, MIOT International, 4/112, Mount Poonamallee Road, Manapakkam, Chennai, Tamil Nadu

How to cite this article:
Rajaian S, Pragatheeswarane M, Krishnamurthy K, Narasimhachar S C. Isolated intraluminal ureteral endometriosis mimicking tuberculosis.J Postgrad Med 2019;65:58-59

How to cite this URL:
Rajaian S, Pragatheeswarane M, Krishnamurthy K, Narasimhachar S C. Isolated intraluminal ureteral endometriosis mimicking tuberculosis. J Postgrad Med [serial online] 2019 [cited 2023 Mar 27 ];65:58-59
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Full Text

Endometriosis is defined as presence of endometrial tissue in an ectopic site. Endometriosis affects ovaries, fallopian tubes, skin, lungs, intestines, surgical scars, lymph nodes, and spine.[1],[2] Involvement of ureter is rare and has been reported most often in a non-functioning kidney. Majority of the patients would require nephrectomy.[3] Often the ureteral involvement with endometriosis is silent and involves left distal ureter.[4]

A 26-year-old nulliparous lady presented with a history of intermittent episodes of left lower quadrant abdominal pain for 3 months. Her menstrual cycles were normal. She had no past history of surgical intervention or pelvic infection. About 9 months ago, she had tuberculosis of D3, D5 spine, and successfully completed anti-tuberculous therapy. Her general and pelvic examination was normal. Contrast enhanced computerized tomography (CECT) imaging of the abdomen and pelvis [Figure 1]a and isotope renogram revealed poorly functioning left kidney (split renal function 21%) with hydroureteronephrosis due to left mid-ureteric stricture at S3 vertebra level [Figure 1]b. Tuberculous ureteric stricture was suspected. Left retrograde pyelography (RGP) revealed a passable 1.5 cm stricture in mid-ureter [Figure 2]a. The stricture segment was dilated with a Cook™ ureteroscopic balloon dilator [Figure 2]b followed by ureteroscopy which showed a polypoidal mass of 7 mm in the area of stricture [Figure 2]c. Cold cup biopsy of the lesion was done and a 6 Fr 26 cm silicone DJ stent was placed. Histopathology of the biopsy revealed endometrial glands with rich vascularity [Figure 3]a. Further immunohistochemical studies with special stains revealed estrogen and progesterone receptor positivity in epithelial layer and CD10 positivity in stromal tissue [Figure 3]b, [Figure 3]c, [Figure 3]d. She was started on oral medroxy progesterone and at follow-up of 6 months, she is doing well.{Figure 1}{Figure 2}{Figure 3}

Endometriosis affecting the ureter is usually extrinsic and unilateral (80%).[5] Theories proposed for pathogenesis are:

Menstrual reflux theory – Refluxing endometrial cells are poorly cleared by the peritoneal scavenging system[6]Embryonal theory – Ureter and endometrium shares the same embryological development from the Müllerian duct remnants, hence the endometrial rests can develop in the ureter[6]Loaded sigmoid colon creating hidden microenvironment resulting in asymmetric involvement of left distal ureter[6]Hematogenous and retrograde lymphatic seeding theory.[6]

Differential diagnosis of isolated ureteral endometriosis will include amyloidosis, fibroepithelial polyp, sloughed papilla, and transitional cell carcinoma. Tuberculous strictures involving the ureter are generally multifocal and diffuse, and rarely present as an isolated short segment stricture. CECT urography may be required to rule out extrinsic compression of ureter, while magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be beneficial in ruling out pelvic endometriosis. Diagnostic laparoscopy is still the gold standard in pelvic endometriosis.[7] As the conventional imaging is less beneficial in poorly functioning kidney, ureteroscopy with biopsy will be of more value as in our case.[8] Management of ureteric endometriosis includes double J stenting, ureterolysis, ureteric resection, and anastomosis or ureteric reimplantation. Despite all the surgical ureteric intervention, progressive renal dysfunction occurs in 40%.[6] Endometriosis especially in women of childbearing age group should be considered as differential diagnosis in ureteric obstruction as the renal unit can be salvaged by endoscopic intervention at the earlier stage of the disease course.

Declaration of patient consent

The authors certify that appropriate patient consent was obtained.

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There are no conflicts of interest.


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