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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2005| January-March  | Volume 51 | Issue 1  
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Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy: 30-day mortality trends and risk factors
Simon EJ Janes, C SG Price, S Khan
January-March 2005, 51(1):23-29
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: 30-day Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) mortality of 8% (1992). Recent concerns suggest that mortality may have increased, prompting a comparison of current practice with that reported earlier. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data regarding PEG insertion with relation to case mix, complications, 30-day mortality and associated risk factors, in 2002, in a British University Hospital was compared with that in 1992. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine factors independently predictive of 30-day mortality. RESULTS: In 2002, 112 patients (70% males, mean age 67.5 years; 1992: 63.6 years) underwent PEG. The 30-day mortality increased significantly from 8% (1992) to 22% (2002), P= 0.03. During this time, PEG insertion rate increased ten-fold, however, procedure-related mortality decreased from 2% to nil. In terms of percentage, the indications for PEG in 1992 and 2002 respectively were: cerebrovascular disease (33/25), head and neck tumours (16/24), motor neuron disease (27/11, P= 0.01). The proportion of PEGs for non-evidence-based indications increased from 16% in 1992 to 31% in 2002, P= 0.048. The number of PEGs placed radiologically increased (0/17, P= 0.02). Radiological patients received less antibiotic prophylaxis (P< 0.001) and had more PEG site infections than standard placement, P= 0.04. Multivariate analysis identified nil by mouth 7 days or 11.4 (CI 3.2-41.7), albumin 30 g/L or 12 (2.2-66.7) and >1 cardiac factor or 5.1 (1.02-25.6) as independent predictors of 30-day mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The ten-fold rise in the PEG insertion rate has been accompanied by a three-fold rise in 30-day mortality. This may reflect a lowered threshold of PEG insertion. The risk factors identified may help decision-making in cases where the risk-benefit relationship is not clear-cut.
  22 15,787 478
Irrational drug use in India: A prescription survey from Goa
Vikram Patel, R Vaidya, D Naik, P Borker
January-March 2005, 51(1):9-12
BACKGROUND: There is concern regarding the irrational production, prescription and use of drugs in India. This study aimed to describe the quality of prescriptions by medical practitioners, including both the layout of the prescription and the type and number of drugs prescribed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A survey of all prescriptions dispensed at a busy pharmacy in the state of Goa, India, was carried out over a consecutive seven-day period. Each prescription was rated on the basis of a priori and pilot-tested variable list. The prescriptions by private practitioners were compared with those from practitioners in the public healthcare system. RESULTS: Nine hundred and ninety prescriptions were collected. The majority (83.9%) were from private practitioners. The quality of the layout of the prescriptions was unsatisfactory: information to identify the practitioner was incomplete in more than a third of the prescriptions and information to identify the patient was incomplete in more than half. Clarity of written instructions on how to take the medicines was unsatisfactory in the majority of prescriptions. Polypharmacy was the norm, with more than half (52.7%) the prescriptions containing at least 3 medicines. Forty per cent of prescriptions included a vitamin or tonic preparation and a quarter of the prescriptions included an antibiotic and an analgesic. Over 90% of prescriptions contained only branded medicines. Private practitioners prescribed significantly greater number of medicines and were more likely to prescribe vitamins and antibiotics, and branded medicines. DISCUSSION: This study confirms that the quality of prescriptions, both in terms of layout and the content of the drugs prescribed, is inadequate. There is a need to standardize the format of prescriptions in India so that all essential information is included. There is a need to strengthen an independent mechanism for continuing professional development of practitioners to ensure that patients are always given evidence-based, cost-effective treatments.
  22 34,875 648
Conversion from laparoscopic to open cholecystectomy: Multivariate analysis of preoperative risk factors
M Tayeb, Syed Ahsan Raza, MR Khan, R Azami
January-March 2005, 51(1):17-20
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become the gold standard in the treatment of symptomatic cholelithiasis. Some patients require conversion to open surgery and several preoperative variables have been identified as risk factors that are helpful in predicting the probability of conversion. However, there is a need to devise a risk-scoring system based on the identified risk factors to (a) predict the risk of conversion preoperatively for selected patients, (b) prepare the patient psychologically, (c) arrange operating schedules accordingly, and (d) minimize the procedure-related cost and help overcome financial constraints, which is a significant problem in developing countries. AIM: This study was aimed to evaluate preoperative risk factors for conversion from laparoscopic to open cholecystectomy in our setting. SETTINGS AND DESIGNS: A case control study of patients who underwent laparoscopic surgery from January 1997 to December 2001 was conducted at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All those patients who were converted to open surgery (n = 73) were enrolled as cases. Two controls who had successful laparoscopic surgery (n = 146) were matched with each case for operating surgeon and closest date of surgery. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Descriptive statistics were computed and, univariate and multivariate analysis was done through multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: The final multivariate model identified two risk factors for conversion: ultrasonographic signs of inflammation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 8.5; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.3, 21.9) and age > 60 years (aOR = 8.1; 95% CI: 2.9, 22.2) after adjusting for physical signs, alkaline phosphatase and BMI levels. CONCLUSION: Preoperative risk factors evaluated by the present study confirm the likelihood of conversion. Recognition of these factors is important for understanding the characteristics of patients at a higher risk of conversion.
  13 21,663 412
Current perspectives on the management of gastroparesis
Akheel A Syed, A Rattansingh, SD Furtado
January-March 2005, 51(1):54-60
Gastroparesis is a condition of abnormal gastric motility characterised by delayed gastric emptying in the absence of mechanical outlet obstruction. It is seen commonly in people with diabetes but is idiopathic in a third of patients. Symptoms include nausea and vomiting, post-prandial fullness and early satiety, and abdominal bloating and discomfort. Investigations fall into three categories: gastric emptying studies, intraluminal pressure measurements and recording of gastric myoelectrical activity. Nuclear scintigraphy is considered the gold standard for diagnosing and quantifying delayed gastric emptying. Treatment options include diet and behavioural changes, prokinetic drugs and surgical interventions. New advances in drug therapy and gastric electrical stimulation techniques hold considerable promise.
  13 31,247 1,065
Confusing brand names: Nightmare of medical profession
PV Rataboli, Amit Garg
January-March 2005, 51(1):13-16
OBJECTIVE: India has more than 20,000 registered pharmaceutical manufacturers. Consequently, there is a flood of brand names to choose from. We conducted this study to analyse and sort out the multitudinous brand names thronging the Indian market, and identified those that could create a possible confusion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Recent issues of drug formularies like Indian Drug Review, Drug Index, and Monthly Index of Medical Specialities-India were checked and all the brand names given were included. Some other brand names that are available with the pharmacists but are not included in these indexes were also included in the study for analysis. OBSERVATIONS: Potentially confusing brand names were sorted out and categorised according to the severity of damage they can cause if misinterpreted by the pharmacist or the patient. Subgroups were made according to the brand name, the generic name, and the manufacturers of the drug. CONCLUSION: Several brand names are strikingly identical, similar looking (orthographic), or similar sounding (phonological). Preventing this possible confusion is not the work of any one person involved. We describe the role of prescribing doctors, dispensing pharmacists, consumer patients, and the manufacturing companies to prevent "wrong prescribing" due to similarities in brand names.
  12 17,758 422
Path of Progress: Report of an Eventful Year for the Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Sandeep B Bavdekar, DR Sahu
January-March 2005, 51(1):5-8
  7 9,871 145
Bilateral post traumatic anterior shoulder dislocation
Kailash L Devalia, VK Peter
January-March 2005, 51(1):72-73
  7 8,708 189
Crossing to Safety: Transforming Healthcare Organizations for Patient Safety
James D Ralston, EB Larson
January-March 2005, 51(1):61-67
The current healthcare system is not designed to ensure better patient safety. In addition, healthcare is simultaneously becoming increasingly complex and increasingly fragmented. Medical knowledge and technology are expanding at an incredible rate, making it difficult for the healthcare providers to keep pace with advancing knowledge. Patients’ needs are changing too: shifting from the diagnosis and treatment of a single, acute problem to the long-term management of multiple, interrelated chronic conditions. Our systems of care are not keeping up with these changes and, consequently, patients are experiencing unnecessary risk. Improving patient safety requires a transformation in how we currently care for patients. Healthcare organizations must adopt a new paradigm of care that holds patient safety as a core value and practice. To achieve this aim, healthcare organizations should build and maintain a culture of patient safety, provide leadership for patient safety that establishes a blame-free environment, proactively survey and monitor for adverse events, continually engineer patient safety into healthcare processes, and provide information and communication technologies to support patient safety.
  7 14,775 376
Nasal dermoid with intracranial extension
Ravi Meher, I Singh, S Aggarwal
January-March 2005, 51(1):39-40
Nasal dermoids are rare congenital anomalies, which usually present in early childhood as a midline nasal mass that requires surgical management. It is important to rule out any intracranial extension before subjecting the patient to surgery. We describe a case of nasal dermoid with intracranial extension. The embryology of the formation of the nasal dermoid, cyst and sinus, with the role of CT scan and MRI in diagnosing intracranial extension, and its management are discussed.
  5 16,462 225
Chest wall metastases from unknown primary hepatocellular carcinoma
SS Qureshi, SV Shrikhande, AM Borges, Parul J Shukla
January-March 2005, 51(1):41-42
Metastases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) to the bones are common but bone metastases of hepatocellular carcinoma in the presence of a normal liver are an uncommon entity. A 50-year-old male patient presented with a rapidly growing tumour on the sternum. Biopsy of the lesion showed metastatic sternal tumour from a primary hepatocellular carcinoma. Radiological evaluation however, failed to detect a primary lesion in the liver. Bone metastases of hepatocellular carcinoma localized to the chest wall in the presence of a normal liver are scarcely reported as anecdotal case reports in the literature.
  5 10,664 174
Insulin glargine: A long acting insulin analog
PN Chakkarwar, NA Manjrekar
January-March 2005, 51(1):68-71
  3 16,935 503
Solitary nevus lipomatosus cutaneous superficialis
Archana C Buch, NK Panicker, PP Karve
January-March 2005, 51(1):47-48
  3 14,245 289
Severe autonomic dysfunction as a presenting feature of Wilson’s disease
S Kumar
January-March 2005, 51(1):75-76
  3 8,520 152
Sino-nasal epithelial tumours: A pathological study of 69 cases
L Panchal, Pradeep Vaideeswar, D Kathpal, CV Madiwale, DP Prabhat
January-March 2005, 51(1):30-35
BACKGROUND: Epithelial neoplasms are uncommon lesions affecting the sino-nasal tract. There are hardly any reports in the Indian literature. AIM: To study the incidence, mode of presentation and histological types of sino-nasal epithelial tumours in the surgical pathology material. SETTING AND DESIGN: Retrospective retrieval of all sino-nasal tumours and analysis of epithelial tumours. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All sino-nasal epithelial tumours, biopsied or surgically excised over a period of ten years, were studied. The tumours were classified as benign or malignant. The histology was correlated with the clinical presentation and investigations. RESULTS: In ten years, there were 120 sino-nasal tumours representing 0.14% of all the surgical specimens received. Sixty-nine epithelial tumours (59.2%) outnumbered the non-epithelial tumours and were diagnosed on the basis of histopathology. Twenty were benign and 49 malignant; occurring predominantly in males. Benign lesions included four squamous papillomas and 16 inverted papillomas, with recurrence in three inverted papillomas (21%). Squamous cell carcinomas were the commonest among malignant tumours and four of these were associated with inverted or cylindrical cell papilloma. The second most frequent malignant tumour was adenoid cystic carcinoma with eight cases. Other rare types included the variants of squamous carcinoma, adenocarcinomas of the non-enteric type, muco-epidermoid carcinoma and undifferentiated carcinomas. CONCLUSION: Sino-nasal epithelial tumours are rare lesions, with male preponderance. Inverted papillomas and squamous cell carcinomas are the most frequent neoplasms.
  3 15,350 287
From the pen to the patient: Minimising medication errors
S Mehta, NJ Gogtay
January-March 2005, 51(1):3-4
  2 12,173 265
Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy
Alon Lang
January-March 2005, 51(1):28-29
  2 5,713 153
Prediction of unsuccessful laparoscopic cholecystectomy
Lars-Erik Hammarstrom
January-March 2005, 51(1):21-22
  2 5,747 146
A giant left atrium
Ankur A Kothari, KA Kothari
January-March 2005, 51(1):49-50
  2 10,495 234
Vascular complication following lipid free propofol injection
Prakash K Dubey, A Kumar
January-March 2005, 51(1):73-74
  2 7,544 171
Ileal metastases from oesophageal carcinoma causing intestinal obstruction
RS Neve, SS Qureshi, Rajesh C Mistry
January-March 2005, 51(1):74-75
  2 5,809 133
Student's section and student editors of JPGM
Hrishikesh Kulkarni, Meenal Kulkarni, Upendra Bhalerao, Ajit Goenka, Kamal Jethwani, Neeti Kanodra, Pallavi Patil, Dhwani Saggi, Mansi Bhagwate, Nitesh Sharma, Abhishek Patil
January-March 2005, 51(1):78-78
  2 6,358 122
Malignant tumors of the sinonasal tract
D Goldenberg, RP Tufano, BJ Goldstein
January-March 2005, 51(1):35-35
  1 8,875 164
An elderly lady in shock
J Mathew, PS Menon, Nalini S Shah
January-March 2005, 51(1):51-53
  1 8,504 183
Extra-medullary haematopoiesis in β-thalassaemia
F Habibzadeh, M Yadollahie, M Haghshenas
January-March 2005, 51(1):45-46
  1 9,579 208
Textbook of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy
Rui Fernandez
January-March 2005, 51(1):79-79
  - 8,818 168
Granular cell tumour of the ampulla of Vater
Kamran Khalid, MK Alam, Al-Halabi Al-Shakweer Wafaa, Al-Teimi N Ibrahim
January-March 2005, 51(1):36-38
Granular cell tumour (GCT) is a rare soft tissue neoplasm commonly encountered in the head and neck region, skin and subcutaneous tissue. GCT of the biliary system is most commonly reported in African-American females and usually presents as abdominal pain and obstructive jaundice. The neoplasm constitutes less than 10% of all benign tumours of the extra-hepatic biliary tree. No case of GCT involving the ampulla of Vater has been reported in the literature to date. We report a case of benign GCT involving the ampullary region in a 44-year-old Ethiopian male. Preoperative diagnosis was available on ERCP and deep biopsy. The patient was managed by debulking resection and biliary-enteric bypass and is symptom-free with no evidence of tumour progression after a follow-up of one year.
  - 8,892 169
Primary biliary cirrhosis complicated by transverse myelitis in a patient without Sjögren’s syndrome
V Papadopoulos, A Micheli, D Nikiforidis, Konstantinos Mimidis
January-March 2005, 51(1):43-44
Transverse myelitis is an acute inflammatory process, affecting one or more segments of the spinal cord. Its association with primary biliary cirrhosis has been documented in only four cases – all along with Sjögren’s syndrome. Herein, we report for the first time, a patient who developed recurrent acute transverse myelitis in association with primary biliary cirrhosis without any clinical or histological indication of Sjögren’s syndrome. A 42-year-old woman with primary biliary cirrhosis developed acute onset quadriparesis and urinary retention. Diagnostic evaluation excluded the presence of Sjögren’s syndrome, other autoimmune syndromes, infections and multiple sclerosis. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spinal cord disclosed signal intensity abnormalities from C1 to T2 after gadolinium enhancement. As diagnosis of acute transverse myelitis was prominent, the patient was treated with intravenous methylprednisolone. The patient had a fair outcome despite an early recurrence of the symptoms after treatment withdrawal.
  - 10,235 199
Conversion to an open approach during video-laparocholecystectomy
Valentino Tiziano Pio Pio
January-March 2005, 51(1):21-21
  - 5,745 141
A pathological study of sinonasal epithelial tumours
N Bhattacharyya
January-March 2005, 51(1):34-34
  - 4,927 123
Yet another cause for drug-induced pulmonary fibrosis
JM Ng, Vahidassr
January-March 2005, 51(1):76-77
  - 9,645 190
Online since 12th February '04
© 2004 - Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Official Publication of the Staff Society of the Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, India
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow