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   2006| January-March  | Volume 52 | Issue 1  
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Drug-Induced Myocardial Infarction Secondary to Coronary Artery Spasm in Teenagers and Young Adults
Ayman AEI Menyar
January-March 2006, 52(1):51-56
There is no published registry for drug-induced acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with subsequent patent coronary angiogram in teenagers. To highlight the mechanism and impact of drug-induced MI with patent coronary arteries among teenagers who have relatively few coronary risk factors in comparison with older patients, we conducted a review of the literature. In this review most of the pertinent published (English and non-English) articles through the Medline, Scopus, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and EBSCO Host research databases from 1970 to 2005 have been revised. Teenagers and young adults with AMI and subsequent patent coronary angiogram were included. In those cases drug-induced coronary spasm was highlighted. Among 220 articles (>12000 cases) related with AMI with normal coronary angiogram, 50 articles (~100 cases) reported the role of drug in AMI secondary to coronary artery spasm (CAS). There is no well-conducted trial for AMI secondary to CAS in young adults but only a series of case reports, and the diagnosis in most of cases was based on the clinical and laboratory findings without provocation. CAS was associated with 12 illicit substances in teenagers (i.e., cocaine, marijuana, alcohol, butane, and amphetamine). Smoking is not only the initiative but also might harbor other illicit substances that increase the risk for CAS. Cocaine-associated AMI is the most frequent in various research papers. CAS was reported with 19 types of medications (i.e., over-the-counter, chemotherapy, antimigraine, and antibiotics) without strong relation to age. Despite drug-induced AMI being not a common event, attention to smoking and drugs in teenagers and young adults will have major therapeutic and prognostic implications.
  33,190 915 23
Management of Epilepsy and Pregnancy
Sanjeev V Thomas
January-March 2006, 52(1):57-64
Epilepsy is recognized as the commonest serious neurological disorder in the world. Women with epilepsy (WWE) experience several gender-related physical and social problems. They constitute high obstetric risk because of reduced fertility, risk of seizures during pregnancy, and complications of pregnancy. Hormonal and other factors can alter the pharmacokinetics of antiepileptic drugs (AED) during pregnancy and puerperium. Antenatal exposure to AEDs, particularly at higher dosage and in polytherapy, increases the risk of fetal malformation. Recent reports raise the possibility of selective developmental language deficits and neurocognitive deficits with antenatal exposure to AEDs. There are concerns regarding the effect of traces of AEDs that pass to the infant during breast-feeding. The pre conception management is the cornerstone for epilepsy care in WWE. A careful reappraisal of each case should ascertain the diagnosis, the need for continued AED therapy, selection of appropriate AEDs, optimization of the dosage, and prescription of folic acid. During pregnancy, the fetal status needs to be monitored with estimation of serum a-feto-protein and ultrasound screening for malformations. The dosage of AEDs can be adjusted according to clinical requirement and blood levels of AEDs. Several institutions recommend oral vitamin K toward the end of pregnancy when enzyme-inducing AEDs are prescribed because the latter may potentially predispose the new born to hemorrhagic disease, but recent reports indicate that such a risk is practically negligible. WWE who are using enzyme-inducing AEDs (phenobarbitone, primidone, phenytoin, carbamazepine, and oxcarbazepine) need to know that these AEDs may lead to failure of oral contraception.
  25,391 1,469 10
Terrible triad of the elbow: A case report of a new variant
MM Desai, Sandeep V Sonone, SA Badve
January-March 2006, 52(1):43-44
The usual terrible triad of the elbow consists of posterior dislocation of the elbow, radial head fracture, and coronoid fracture. We describe a new variant of the terrible triad of the elbow consisting of fracture of the capitellum involving the full length of the trochlea and posterolateral dislocation of the elbow associated with coronoid fracture (type 1 Regan-Morrey). A 25-year-old girl was brought to the emergency ward with the history of having jumped from the third floor with an intention of committing suicide. She sustained multiple fractures, i.e., fracture ribs, bilateral intra-articular fracture of the lower end of the radius, left-side elbow injury, left subtrochanteric fracture femur, and left zygomatic fracture with head injury. The elbow was stable after stabilization of the capitellum fracture through a collateral approach. Coronoid fragment was left alone, as it was a very small fragment.
  18,600 304 1
Cardiovascular involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus: An autopsy study of 27 patients in India
L Panchal, Smita Divate, P Vaideeswar, SP Pandit
January-March 2006, 52(1):5-10
Background: Although cardiovascular disease (CVD) is recognized as a leading cause of death in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in western countries, there is hardly any data regarding Indian subjects with SLE. Aims: To determine the incidence of cardiac abnormalities and vascular lesions at autopsy and to assess their contribution to the mortality in patients with SLE Settings and Design: Retrospective retrieval of reports of autopsies performed on 35 patients with SLE over a 11 year period and analysis of 27 cases with cardiac and/or vascular lesions. Materials and Methods: Gross and microscopic features in 27 autopsies were analyzed with special attention to the heart and the vasculature of all organs. Findings were correlated with clinical features and ante-mortem investigations. Their contribution towards mortality was assessed. Results: Valvar lesions were the commonest cardiac lesions noted with non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis in nine (33.33%), valvar thickening in two (7.41%), Libman-Sacks endocarditis and infective endocarditis in one (3.70%) each. Myocarditis and myocardial scarring were seen in 10 (37.03%) and seven (25.92%) cases, respectively. Fibrinous pericarditis was noted in seven (25.92%). Thromboses/ embolism, vasculitis and severe coronary atherosclerosis were seen in nine (33.33%), five (18.52%) and one (3.70%) subjects, respectively. Renal disease [13, 48.14%] and cardiovascular manifestations [8, 29.62%] were the leading causes of death in our patient population. Conclusion: CVD contributes significantly to the mortality in patients with SLE in India. It is second only to renal disease in this regard
  15,963 573 12
Laryngeal deviation: Condition mimicking submucosal tumor
Hiroyuki Funatsu, T Miyazawa, H Saigusa, M Kitamura
January-March 2006, 52(1):49-50
  14,988 168 -
Residents' perceptions of work environment during their postgraduate medical training in Pakistan
BI Avan, Syed Ahsan Raza, S Khokhar, F Awan, N Sohail, S Rashid, H Hamza
January-March 2006, 52(1):11-16
Background: In Pakistan, there is a lack of information about the work environment of residency programs. This lack is a major impediment in their improvement. One of the approaches for improvement in these programs can be directed through the residents' own perception of their working conditions. Therefore, we collected data which would reflect working conditions of residents. Aim: To assess the perceived status of "work environment" in different specialities Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in four teaching hospitals of Karachi from July 1999 to January 2000. Residents from selected programs were grouped into four broad groups: specialist, medical, surgical, and multidisciplinary. Responses of residents were obtained on a Likert scale of 0 to 4. Indices were formed for two components of work environment: academic and mistreatment. Statistical Analysis: Differences between residents' groups were assessed through analysis of variance (ANOVA) at 5% significance. Results: A total of 341 registered residents responded (response rate: 75%). Surgical residents were working more than 80 h/week and this was more than the other three groups. Medical residents were spending the highest actual time on research and teaching activities (10% and 14%, respectively). Academic index score was highest for surgical group (15.81, SD = 4.69) and lowest for multidisciplinary group (11.82, SD = 4.80). Medical group had the highest perceived mistreatment index score (5.56, SD = 4.57). Conclusions: In a study of work environment of residency programs, differential impact was found for the four groups on work environment perceptions. Most of the residents recognized undergraduate teaching, grand rounds, patient rounds, and seminars or workshops as contributing to their academic learning. Reporting of sexual harassment was low, indicating either underreporting or cultural dynamics of our setting.
  14,388 228 7
Achilles tendon enthesopathy in ochronosis
Isaac Jebaraj, A Rao
January-March 2006, 52(1):47-48
  11,995 190 3
Brunner's gland hyperplasia at the ampulla of Vater
SE J Janes, AM Zaitoun, JA Catton, GP Aithal, IJ Beckingham
January-March 2006, 52(1):38-40
Brunner's gland hyperplasia (BGH) is a diagnostic challenge where in the pathophysiology and natural history remain poorly understood. This Case Report describes BGH arising at the ampulla of Vater, causing abdominal pain and vomiting in a 46-year-old man. Owing to the inconclusive nature of imaging studies and suspicious intraoperative findings, a Whipple resection was performed without any complications. Histological analysis showed that the obstructing lesion was BGH, with no evidence of malignancy. This is only the second such case of its kind at the ampulla of Vater to be reported. In addition, we present the previously unreported endoscopic ultrasound findings. The subsequent literature review focuses on the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of BGH.
  11,840 211 5
Virtual cystoscopy: Reality in imaging of bladder tuberculosis
Paritosh C Khanna, KU Kukreja, SA Merchant, M Farooq
January-March 2006, 52(1):35-37
We present a case of urinary tuberculosis investigated initially by ultrasound and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). The MDCT-derived volumetric data were used to generate virtual cystoscopy (VC) images, which revealed a bladder ulcer. The presence of this ulcer was confirmed by conventional cystoscopy-guided biopsy and there was good agreement regarding various features of the ulcer, such as the site, size and shape, as detected by virtual and conventional cystoscopies. VC, a result of simple postprocessing of preacquired MDCT data, proved valuable in the characterization of the bladder lesion in conjunction with CT and ultrasound images. Although a larger study is warranted, in our case these en face VC representations of the ulcer served as useful precursors to conventional cystoscopic biopsy.
  11,641 190 3
Invasive meningococcal disease in the university of Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
NS Raja, N Parasakthi, SD Puthucheary, A Kamarulzaman
January-March 2006, 52(1):23-29
Background: Neisseria meningitidis (N. meningitidis) remains the leading worldwide cause of acute bacterial meningitis and fatal sepsis in healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: A total of 12 cases of N. meningitidis from patients with invasive meningococcal infections in University of Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur during the years 1987-2004 were reviewed together with details of age, sex, disease, risk factors treatment and outcome of these patients. Results: Their ages ranged from 10 months to 64 years (median age 29.75 years). The male to female ratio was 1.42:1. Fever, neck stiffness, headache, vomiting and confusion were predominant symptoms. Upper respiratory tract viral infection and Hajj pilgrimage were directly associated with invasive meningococcal disease. Penicillin or ceftriaxone or both in some cases were administered as empirical therapy. All isolates were sensitive to penicillin, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol and rifampicin. The case fatality ratio was 1:4. One Hajj pilgrim died despite having received polyvalent meningococcal vaccine. Amongst the survivors, two patients had neurological deficit, hearing loss and arthritis. Conclusion: Early antimicrobial therapy has been shown to reduce these adverse outcomes. Clinicians need to be alerted to the presence of the disease in the community and the disease should be made notifiable within 24 hours of detection both for early treatment of cases and to facilitate contact tracing, institution of prophylactic treatment and prevention of secondary cases.
  10,924 253 2
Male anterior urethral diverticula with Cobb's collar and a giant stone
Iqbal Singh, S Neogi
January-March 2006, 52(1):73-74
  10,612 174 1
Is ultrasonography essential before surgery in eyes with advanced cataracts?
Amjad Salman, P Parmar, CG Vanila, PA Thomas, CA Nelson Jesudasan
January-March 2006, 52(1):19-22
Background: Ultrasonography is an important tool for evaluating the posterior segment in eyes with opaque media. Aim: To study the incidence of posterior segment pathology in eyes with advanced cataract and to see whether certain features could be used as predictors for an abnormal posterior segment on ultrasound. Setting: Tertiary care hospital in South India. Methods and Materials: In this prospective study conducted over a 6-month period, all eyes with dense cataracts precluding visualization of fundus underwent assessment with ultrasound. Presence of certain patient and ocular "risk" factors believed to be associated with a higher incidence of abnormal posterior segment on ultrasound were looked for and the odds ratio (OR) for posterior segment pathology in these eyes was calculated. Results: Of the 418 eyes assessed, 36 eyes (8.6%) had evidence of posterior segment pathology on ultrasound. Retinal detachment (17 eyes; 4.1%) was the most frequent abnormality detected. Among patient features, diabetes mellitus (OR= 4.9, P=0.003) and age below 50 years (OR= 15.4, P=0.001) were associated with a high incidence of abnormal ultrasound scans. In ocular features, posterior synechiae (OR= 20.2, P=0.000), iris coloboma (OR= 34.6, P=0.000), inaccurate projection of rays (OR= 15.1, P=0.002), elevated intraocular pressure (OR= 15.1, P=0.004), and keratic precipitates (OR= 22.4, P=0.004) were associated with high incidence of posterior segment pathology. Only four eyes (1.5%) without these features had abnormal posterior segment on ultrasonography. Conclusions: Certain patient and ocular features are indicative of a high risk for posterior segment pathology and such patients should be evaluated by ultrasonography prior to cataract surgery. In the absence of these risk factors, the likelihood of detecting abnormalities on preoperative ultrasonography in eyes with advanced cataracts is miniscule.
  10,147 204 1
Topiramate induced secondary angle closure glaucoma
D Sachi, Lingam Vijaya
January-March 2006, 52(1):72-73
  10,087 204 8
Does the circadian pattern for acute cardiac events presentation vary with fasting?
Al Jassim Suwaidi, A Bener, AA Gehani, S Behair, D Al Mohanadi, A Salam, HA Al Binali
January-March 2006, 52(1):30-33
Background: Over one billion Muslims fast worldwide during the month of Ramadan. The impact of fasting on circadian presentation with acute cardiac events is unknown. Aim: To determine if fasting has any effect on the circadian presentation of acute cardiac events. Setting and Design: A prospective study in a general hospital. Materials and Methods: Patients with acute coronary events were divided into two groups based on the history of fasting. Information about age, gender, cardiovascular risk factor profiles, and outcome was collected. The relationship of time of presentation of initial symptoms with fasting was evaluated using Student's t-test, Mann-Whitney U-test, and x2sub analysis. Results: Of the 1019 patients hospitalized during the study period, 162 were fasting. Although, fasting patients were more likely to present to the emergency department in the time periods 5-6 AM (10.5% vs 6.3%) and 11 PM (11.1% vs 7.1%) and were less likely to present in the time periods 1-2 PM (3.7% vs 7.2%) and 5-6 PM (3.7% vs 7.0%); these differences were not statistically significant. Fasting patients were less likely to have their symptoms start between 5 and 8 AM (11.1% vs 19.4%) and more likely to have symptoms between 5 and 6 PM (11.1% vs 6.0%) and 3 and 4 AM (11.1% vs 6.9%). These differences for time of initial symptoms were statistically significant (P=0.002). Conclusion: Exogenous factors associated with fasting, namely, the changes in food intake and/or sleep timings, affect the circadian rhythm and influence the timing of presentation of acute coronary events.
  9,917 246 7
Cystic partially differentiated nephroblastoma: A rare differentiated variant of Wilm's tumour
S Singh, R Gupta, Nita Khurana
January-March 2006, 52(1):45-46
  9,528 276 1
An unusual case of hemoperitoneum owing to acute splenic torsion in a child with immunoglobulin deficiency
Fernandez EM Lopez-Tomassetti, Gonzalez I Arteaga, Malagon A MartŪn, Pallares A Carrillo
January-March 2006, 52(1):41-42
Wandering spleen is an uncommon clinical entity, which rarely affects children and adolescents. It is usually described in adults, being most common in the multiparous women of childbearing age. A case of a 14-year-old girl with a past history of splenomegaly and immunoglobulin A (IgA) deficiency, who presented with a sudden onset of abdominal pain, is presented. Diagnosis of hemoperitoneum secondary to torsion of a wandering spleen was made by computed tomography scan and Doppler ultrasound. Laparoscopy revealed hemoperitoneum owing to a ruptured and infarcted spleen. Laparotomy was undertaken and open splenectomy was successfully performed. The patient was discharged after an uneventful postoperative course that was not punctuated by any major complication. Management of this rare surgical emergency is discussed. Based on the details of this case, the authors hypothesize that IgA deficiency causes splenomegaly, which in turn predisposes to ligamentous laxity and splenic torsion.
  7,884 147 5
A beginner's guide to research- II
Kamal S Jethwani, NM Kanodra
January-March 2006, 52(1):65-67
  7,114 268 2
Antenatal diagnosis of camptomelic dysplasia
AM Nagar, PM Sangle, Ajay C Morani, ND Rajpal
January-March 2006, 52(1):69-70
  6,881 166 2
Transient global amnesia following coronary angiography
AR Udyavar, RC Dsouza, N Gadkar, Rajesh M Rajani
January-March 2006, 52(1):70-71
  6,159 145 1
Yet another year and a new report from the editors
SB Bavdekar, DR Sahu
January-March 2006, 52(1):3-4
  6,006 115 3
Histopathological study of the cardiac conduction system in systemic lupus erythematosus
G Ottaviani
January-March 2006, 52(1):10-10
  5,940 143 -
Does ramadan modify the circadian patterns?
A Altun, B Ugur-Altun
January-March 2006, 52(1):33-34
  5,768 153 1
Worldwide tracking of Neisseria meningitidis
Muhamed-Kheir Taha
January-March 2006, 52(1):29-29
  5,568 162 -
An unusual lipomatous hemangiopericytoma
GP Amonkar, JR Deshpande, BM Kandalkar
January-March 2006, 52(1):71-72
  5,441 150 1
Workplace learning
D Delva
January-March 2006, 52(1):17-17
  5,266 128 -
Second joint ICMR-CRI Indo-US workshop on research methodology: A student's perspective
HS Kulkarni
January-March 2006, 52(1):68-68
  5,188 161 -
Residents' perceptions of work environment during their postgraduate medical training in Pakistan
Joseph YS Ting
January-March 2006, 52(1):17-18
  4,772 123 1
Online since 12th February '04
© 2004 - Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Official Publication of the Staff Society of the Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, India
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow