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   2006| July-September  | Volume 52 | Issue 3  
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Pharmaceutical industry's corporate social responsibility towards HIV/AIDS
Arun Kumar Khanna
July-September 2006, 52(3):194-196
The pharmaceutical industry has a corporate social responsibility (CSR) towards HIV/AIDS. Measures taken to increase awareness of HIV/AIDS, availability and accessibility of potent and patient-friendly FDCs / Kits for adults and children will go a long way in increasing awareness and acceptance of this disease and its therapy. This will improve adherence, lower resistance and facilitate better disease management. This article discusses some of the CSR initiatives and their scope.
  31,708 408 3
Antiretroviral drug resistance testing
Sourav Sen, SP Tripathy, RS Paranjape
July-September 2006, 52(3):187-193
While antiretroviral drugs, those approved for clinical use and others under evaluation, attempt in lowering viral load and boost the host immune system, antiretroviral drug resistance acts as a major impediment in the management of human immune deficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection. Antiretroviral drug resistance testing has become an important tool in the therapeutic management protocol of HIV-1 infection. The reliability and clinical utilities of genotypic and phenotypic assays have been demonstrated. Understanding of complexities of interpretation of genotyping assay, along with updating of lists of mutation and algorithms, and determination of clinically relevant cut-offs for phenotypic assays are of paramount importance. The assay results are to be interpreted and applied by experienced HIV practitioners, after taking into consideration the clinical profile of the patient. This review sums up the methods of assay currently available for measuring resistance to antiretroviral drugs and outlines the clinical utility and limitations of these assays.
  21,675 784 7
Chemokines and chemokine receptors in HIV infection: Role in pathogenesis and therapeutics
P Suresh, A Wanchu
July-September 2006, 52(3):210-217
Chemokines are known to function as regulatory molecules in leukocyte maturation, traffic, homing of lymphocytes and in the development of lymphoid tissues. Besides these functions in the immune system, certain chemokines and their receptors are involved in HIV pathogenesis. In order to infect a target cell, the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 has to interact with the cellular receptor CD-4 and co-receptor, CC or CXC chemokine receptors. Genetic findings have yielded major insights into the in vivo roles of individual co-receptors and their ligands in providing resistance to HIV infection. Mutations in chemokine receptor genes are associated with protection against HIV infections and also involved in delayed progression to AIDS in infected individuals. Blocking of chemokine receptors interrupts HIV infection in vitro and this offers new options for therapeutic strategies. Approaches have been made to study the CCR-5 inhibitors as antiviral therapies and possibly as components of a topical microbicide to prevent HIV-1 sexual transmission. Immune strategies aimed at generating anti-CCR-5 antibodies at the level of the genital mucosa might be feasible and represent a strategy to induce mucosal HIV- protective immunity. It also remains to be seen how these types of agents will act in synergy with existing HIV-1 targeted anti viral, or those currently in developments. Beyond providing new perspectives in fundamental aspects of the HIV-1 transmission and pathogenesis, chemokines and their receptors suggest new areas for developing novel therapeutic and preventive strategies against HIV infections. Studies in this review were identified through a search for relevant literature in the pubmed database of the national library of medicine. In this review, some developments in chemokine research with particular focus on their roles in HIV pathogenesis, resistance and therapeutic applications have been discussed.
  18,589 1,354 12
Increasing thyroxine requirements in primary hypothyroidism: Don't forget the urinalysis!
NA Junglee, MF Scanlon, DA Rees
July-September 2006, 52(3):201-203
Rising thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in patients being treated for primary hypothyroidism usually indicate poor compliance with thyroxine therapy. In rare instances, drugs or diseases affecting absorption of thyroxine or drugs that accelerate thyroxine metabolism can manifest in a similar fashion. Nephrotic syndrome is a rare cause of such a presentation though its presence can rapidly be suspected by dipstick urine testing. In this report we describe a patient with long-standing primary thyroid failure whose thyroxine dose requirements increased upon development of massive proteinuria. Biochemical testing and renal biopsy subsequently demonstrated nephrotic syndrome and amyloid deposition in association with myeloma. Dipstick urine testing should be considered in all hypothyroid patients with rising TSH levels, where good compliance with thyroxine therapy is likely.
  14,127 468 7
Profile of non communicable disease risk factors in an industrial setting
Meenakshi Bakshi Mehan, N Srivastava, H Pandya
July-September 2006, 52(3):167-171
Aim: The profile of non communicable diseases (NCD) risk factors was identified in an industry by pre tested WHO's STEPS questionnaire. Settings and Design : A cross - sectional survey of all employment categories of an Industry (2000 employees) was done after randomly selecting subjects (220) from worker (52%) and non worker categories (47.4%), after informed consent. Materials and Methods: Information was collected on behavioural risk factors (STEP I), followed by anthropometric and blood pressure measurements by a trained investigator (STEP II). STEP III constituted biochemical assessment of "at risk" subjects (> 3 risk factors). Statistical Analysis : Percentage of subjects having NCD risk factors and the odds ratios were calculated. Results : Overall risk factor profile of the study subjects revealed universal prevalence of < 500 gms daily intakes of vegetables and fruits, followed by 65.9% and 65.5% prevalence of high blood pressure and high BMI respectively. Central obesity was present in 72.7% of subjects (high waist hip ratio) and 32.3% (high waist circumference) respectively. Tobacco usage, inactivity and alcohol usage habit was prevalent in 31.4, 17.3% and 5% of the study subjects respectively. A total of 34.1% of the subjects were identified as being "at risk" (> 3 risk factors) with prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, hypertension and diabetes of 40.5, 38.2 and 19.1% respectively. Conclusions : A high prevalence of NCD risk factors in industrial setting was seen; therefore public health approaches are required at workplace settings to curtail the rising epidemic in the productive populations.
  11,058 297 7
The human prion disease hypothesis does not justify the origin of bovine spongiform encephalopathy
Shyama Chatterjee, E Van Marck
July-September 2006, 52(3):223-225
  8,904 344 -
A tribute to the indomitable spirit of Jivraj Mehta
Ajit H Goenka, HS Kulkarni
July-September 2006, 52(3):226-229
  8,799 134 -
Malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the ampulla of Vater presenting with obstructive jaundice
Dimitrios K Filippou, N Pashalidis, P Skandalakis, S Rizos
July-September 2006, 52(3):204-206
Malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) consists a rare neoplasm, developing in small intestine and stomach. The presenting manifastations include weakness, weight loss, nausea, melena and anaemia. The present case refers to a 65 years old female patient with a GIST of the ampulla of Vater presenting with obstructive jaundice. Diagnosis was achieved pre-operatively by biopsies collected through diagnostic ERCP. The tumour was locally excised, with preservation of the ampulla. The histological analysis suggested low grade GIST positive for both CD 117 (c-kit) and CD34. Two years after the surgery the patient remains free of disease. Malignant GIST of the ampulla of the Vater is extremely rare as only few similar cases have been described in the literature. This is the first time a GIST being presented as obstructive jaundice ever reported. Despite the unavailability of EUS-FNA, the diagnosis was set preoperatively and the tumor was resected.
  8,196 301 6
Mania associated with interferon α2b treatment
KK Basanth, R Jacob, KS Jacob
July-September 2006, 52(3):207-209
Neuropsychiatric side effects are common with Interferon α 2b. Psychosis and depression have been reported. Several cases of mania have been reported but only few have been associated with treatment for hepatitis B. We report a case of mania with psychotic symptoms in a 21-year-old female diagnosed to have hepatitis-B infection, who was receiving interferon. The report supports the view that dose reductions or pauses during interferon treatment can cause mania. Family history of mood disorder could be a risk factor. Atypical presentations are common in interferon-induced mania. Mania induced by interferon responds well to antimanic drugs. Since the use of interferon is increasing in developing countries, the need for awareness of side effects and management issues are important and these are highlighted.
  8,130 239 5
HIV-1 drug resistance among untreated patients in India: Current status
Pachamuthu Balakrishnan, S Saravanan, N Kumarasamy, SS Sunil, S Suniti
July-September 2006, 52(3):183-186
HAART has dramatically improved survival and quality of life among people living with HIV and AIDS globally. However, drug resistant mutations of HIV are a great challenge to the benefits of HAART. Antiviral resistance can be mediated either by changes in the molecular target of therapy (the primary mechanism observed in HIV-1) or in other viral proteins that indirectly interfere with a drug's activity. Drug resistant mutations easily evolve in the presence of sub-optimal adherence. With the introduction of generic HAART, there has been a steep increase in the number of patients put on HAART in India. It should also be noted that since most patients pay for medications out of their own pockets, interruptions in therapy due to monetary constraints are not uncommon. There is little information on HIV drug resistance in resource constrained settings like India where the predominant circulating HIV-1 sub-type is C. The transmissibility of drug-resistant forms of the virus is also a major concern especially when formulating treatment guidelines. This article reviews published data available on the patterns of HIV-1 drug resistance among treatment naοve in India.
  7,944 397 2
Antibiotic resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A in India: Emerging and reemerging problem
Shyamapada Mandal, MD Mandal, NK Pal
July-September 2006, 52(3):163-166
Background: Antibiotic resistance pattern and R-plasmid of Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A isolates from Kolkata, India are not well documented. Aims: To determine the trend of antibiotic resistance of S. paratyphi A isolates. Settings and Design: A retrospective study was carried out using blood culture isolates of S. paratyphi A (1991 to 2005) obtained from patients of enteric fever from Asansol and Kolkata and its suburbs (India). Materials and Methods: Antibiotic susceptibility pattern, using seven antibiotics, for the isolates was determined following agar dilution and disk diffusion methods. Transferability of multidrug resistance to ampicillin (Am), chloramphenicol (Chl), cotrimoxazole (Cot) and tetracycline (Tet) among the isolates was determined by in vitro conjugation. The multi-drug resistant (MDR) and antibiotic susceptible S. paratyphi A strains and the trans-conjugants were screened for the presence of plasmid. Statistical Analysis Used: The t test was used to compare the difference between mean minimum inhibitory concentration values of ciprofloxacin (Cp) for nalidixic acid (Nx)-resistant and Nalidixic acid (Nx)-susceptible isolates. Results: Among 13 outbreak causing isolates in 1991, 9 (69.23%) showed AmChlCotTet-resistance, while 4 (30.77%) Cot-resistance only. During 1992-1994, all 13 isolates were susceptible to Am, Chl, Cot and Tet. During 1995-2005, isolates demonstrated different resistance patterns and emergence of nalidixic acid (Nx)-resistance. A transferable plasmid conferring AmChlCotTet-resistance was detected among MDR isolates. All the isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone (Ctx) and ciprofloxacin (Cp). Association between Nalidixic acid (Nx)-resistance and reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (Cp) among 59 S. paratyphi A isolates was noticed ( P <0.001). Conclusion: Vigilance for R-plasmid and surveillance of antibiotic susceptibility among S. paratyphi A isolates in and around Kolkata, India, are mandatory in order to combat antibiotic resistance of the isolates in this part of the world.
  7,921 352 6
Sirenomelia: MRI appearance
S Sawhney, R Jain, N Meka
July-September 2006, 52(3):219-220
  7,904 244 2
Development and application of multiplex polymerase chain reaction for the etiological diagnosis of infectious endophthalmitis
R Bagyalakshmi, HN Madhavan, KL Therese
July-September 2006, 52(3):179-182
Background: Uniplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of bacterial and panfungal genome has been applied onto a large number of intraocular fluids facilitating management of infective endophthalmitis. Aim: To develop and apply a novel, rapid multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) to detect the presence of eubacterial, Propionibacterium acnes and panfungal genomes in intraocular fluids from patients clinically diagnosed to have infective endophthalmitis. Settings and Design: Prospective study . Materials and Methods: Conventional methods of direct microscopy by KOH/calcofluor mount, Gram's staining and culture were done on 30 (19 Aqueous humor-AH and 11 Vitreous fluid-VF) intraocular specimens and mPCR done for simultaneous detection of eubacterial, P. acnes and panfungal genomes. Results: mPCR detected an infectious etiology in 18 (60%) of 30 intraocular specimens. Eubacterial genome was detected in 12 (40%) specimens, P. acnes genome in 4 (13.3%) specimens and panfungal genome in 2 (6.6%) specimens. mPCR results correlated with those of uniplex PCR. mPCR results were available within 5-6 hours after receipt of specimen, as against 8 hours required for each uniplex PCR with three separate thermalcyclers for their completion. Consumption of Taq polymerase was reduced considerably for mPCR. Conclusion: mPCR is a cost effective, single tube method for the simultaneous detection of eubacterial, P. acnes and panfungal genomes in intraocular specimens from patients with infective endophthalmitis. It is a more rapid procedure than uniplex PCRs and requires only a single thermalcycler.
  7,668 353 5
Risk factors for non-communicable diseases: Getting beyond data
P Mathur
July-September 2006, 52(3):171-172
  7,760 186 -
Future implications: Compliance and failure with antiretroviral treatment
Atul K Patel, KK Patel
July-September 2006, 52(3):197-200
HIV management is currently in an era of effective, potent antiretroviral therapy. Modern drug discovery and development have transformed HIV-1 disease into a treatable, chronic infectious disease. Complete suppression of viral replication is critical for long-term durability of antiretroviral therapy. Partial suppression, even at very low levels, is likely to lead to virologic failure and ultimately to the appearance of drug resistance. The relationship between adherence and resistance to HIV antiretroviral therapy is more complex than to state 'non-adherence increases the risk of drug resistance.' In many patients who fail to respond to initial therapy, the primary reason for failure is their inability to take the prescribed drug regimen or nonadherence.
  7,288 392 2
HIV, research, ethics and women
Vinita Salvi, K Damania
July-September 2006, 52(3):161-162
  7,260 247 5
Use of artificial eye and conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma
Tanveer Anjum Chaudhry, M Memon, K Ahmad
July-September 2006, 52(3):234-235
  6,751 200 1
Post traumatic ectopic nail
Mohan Rajashekar, S Bhandary, M Shenoy, AR Sali
July-September 2006, 52(3):218-218
  6,658 195 3
Fusogenic peptide as diagnostic marker for detection of flaviviruses
Priyabrata Pattnaik, A Srivastava, A Abhyankar, PK Dash, MM Parida, PV Lakshmana Rao
July-September 2006, 52(3):174-178
Background: Dengue, Japanese encephalitis, West Nile encephalitis, yellow fever are the common flaviviral diseases associated with high morbidity and mortality. The initial symptoms of most of the flaviviral infections are similar to each other as well as to some other viral diseases. Making clinical diagnosis, therefore, becomes a challenging task for the clinician. Several studies have been reported on using detection of serum antibodies against flavivirus for the diagnosis of specific flaviviral disease; no field-based pan-flavi virus detection system is available, which can be used in low-endemicity areas for differentiation of flaviviral disease from other viral diseases. Aim: To identify a conserved amino acid sequence among all flaviviruses and evaluate the antibody formed against the conserved peptide to develop pan-flavivirus detection system. Materials and Methods: In the present study we have compared amino acid sequences of several flaviviruses and identified a conserved amino acid sequence lying in domain II of envelope protein. Results : A peptide having the conserved amino acid sequence was used to generate polyclonal antibodies and these antibodies were used to detect several flaviviruses. Anti-peptide polyclonal antibodies selectively recognized flaviviruses and did not detect non-flaviviruses. Anti-peptide antibodies detected presence of virus in serum spiked with pure virus preparations. Conclusion: The study offers a rationale for development of pan-flavivirus capture assay suitable for low endemic areas.
  6,393 287 2
Strongyloidiasis hyperinfection in a patient with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis
Pragati A Sathe, CV Madiwale
July-September 2006, 52(3):221-222
  5,845 189 3
Giant prostatic hyperplasia: Surgical management of a case
Rajeev Sood, Vikas Jain, D Chauhan
July-September 2006, 52(3):232-233
  5,762 152 -
Gabapentin for postoperative nausea and vomiting prophylaxis
Kok-Yuen Ho
July-September 2006, 52(3):230-230
  5,588 251 2
Hemorrhagic bullae with nebulised ipratropium bromide
V Saravanan, RN Bankar, S Kumar, JG Williams
July-September 2006, 52(3):235-236
  5,040 127 -
Lobular adenocarcinoma of the breast metastatic to the mandible
SS Qureshi, S Navadgi, T Shet, Rajesh C Mistry
July-September 2006, 52(3):236-237
  4,377 141 -
Authors' reply
Chandrakant K Pandey, S Priye, SP Ambesh, S Singh, U Singh, PK Singh
July-September 2006, 52(3):230-231
  4,392 101 2
The interesting concept of applying the WHO STEPS data collection approach to the industrial setting
BCK Choi
July-September 2006, 52(3):172-173
  4,227 123 1
Intussuscepting giant liposarcoma of the oesophagus
L Di Mascio, L Gamble, S Wajed, M Winslet
July-September 2006, 52(3):231-232
  3,966 128 5
Isolated recurrence at tracheostomy site in a non-laryngeal head and neck cancer
Sajid S Qureshi, DA Chaukar, AK DCruz
July-September 2006, 52(3):233-234
  3,928 131 -
Online since 12th February '04
© 2004 - Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Official Publication of the Staff Society of the Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, India
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow